THE INFINITE UNIVERSE (Part 5, Chapter 5-1)
© Eit Gaastra
CONTENTS of this website (bottom of this webpage)
PART 5 THE BLACK HOLE PARADIGM
Part 5 (chapters 5-1 –› 5-4) argues that AGNs may be shrunk galaxies/g-galaxies.
[May 2003: My ideas about AGNs have changed so strongly since January 2002 that adding May 2003 additions is an impossible job in this part. End May 2003]
CHAPTER 5-1: ORIGIN OF AGNs
With a Leibniz/Mach/ether model instead of relativity (2-1) and pushing gravity as described in 3-2 there is no such thing as a singularity or a black hole. Also the neutron star and degenerate gas concepts may be theoretical concepts that do not exist in the universe (6-1, 6-2).
The places where conventional scientists expect to find black holes are the centers of galaxies and the centers of active galactic nuclei (AGNs, which too are the centers of galaxies). Shrunk galaxies/shrunk clusters of galaxies (universal engines, 4-1) are, of course, enormous concentrations of matter and can be expected to be found in the centers of galaxies (4-1) and (thus also) at the centers of AGNs (5-1). I think that the black hole paradigm will turn out to be untenable, it will be replaced by shrunk galaxies/shrunk clusters of galaxies for the large (billions of MSun) and medium large (millions of MSun) and by dark matter objects or clusters of dark matter objects for the small black holes.
[September 25 2005: Big bang astronomers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have identified the source of a mysterious blue light surrounding a (what they think is a) supermassive black hole in our neighbouring Andromeda Galaxy (M31). The blue light is coming from a disk of hot, young stars. These stars are whipping around the black hole in much the same way as planets in our solar system are revolving around the Sun. The new observations by Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph reveal that the blue light consists of more than 400 stars. The stars are tightly packed in a disk that is only a light-year across. The disk is nested inside an elliptical ring of older, cooler, redder stars, which was seen in previous Hubble observations.
[January 23 2006: Researchers have found that a certain type of X-ray explosion common on neutron stars is never seen around their black hole cousins, as if the gas that fuels these explosions has vanished into a void. This is strong evidence, the researchers say, for the existence of a theoretical border around a black hole called an event horizon, a point from beyond which nothing, not even light, can escape392.
When new physics come to the front, like the (in my opinion) unavoidable pushing gravity (3-2), then theoretical objects that are now taken for granted by conventional scientists, like black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs, have to be re-calculated. It then may turn out that some (perhaps all) of those objects, i.e. black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs, are not theoretical possible within the new physics. But of course, I can't say what will be the outcome of such new calculations. Perhaps that also with pushing gravity one may get objects having such strong gravity that light can not escape the object. I don't see it as likely, but I certainly can't predict the outcome of the (in my opinion) unavoidable re-calculation of black holes (and neutron stars and white dwarfs), I have to admit that. End January 23 2006]
All AGNs may share the same basic mechanism: a universal engine (4-1), a rotating core of “dark” matter objects which has established itself in a stable and enduring form. The very core of the universal engine may be very dense with many massive dark matter objects orbiting each other at small distances. Massive dark matter objects may have become massive by merging (imagine for instance Sagittarius A* in the nucleus of our Galaxy to merge into one very massive object). Further away from the very core of the universal engine very many smaller dark matter objects may orbit the universal engine (the outer regions may form a starburst disk, 5-1). Perhaps that the nuclear bulge of our Milky Way (or the Milky way as a whole) can become an AGN in the far future (5-4).
[October 2003: Also Mitchell75 has suggested that AGNs may be shrunk galaxies. End October 2003]
Observations of Seyferts seem to reveal that the kinematic centers of AGNs are at the centers of the AGNs, which is, of course, easy to understand with a rotating universal engine at the very core of an AGN.
Perhaps massive (heavy element) dark matter objects get heated by gravitational contraction, which then may produce thermal blackbody optical/UV/X/gamma-rays coming from the central source of AGNs (which then, of course, makes those “dark” matter objects not dark at all anymore).
The starburst-AGN connection of Terlevich and collaborators43 has two problems: accounting for rapid X-ray variability and radio-loud activity. My AGN model has a central object, thus my model comes close to the hybrid model: a starburst-connection with a central source (i.e. universal engine core, not a black hole). A universal engine core as a central source may account for high-energy radiation (5-1), X-ray variability (5-1), a BLR region (5-1) and radio loudness (5-2).
The galactic nucleus of the Milky Way
If universal engines are the cause of AGN activity then studying the properties of the galactic nucleus of our Galaxy (with a universal engine in it, 4-3) may reveal a lot about the mechanisms in AGNs that produce all kind of AGN features. Thus it may be no coincidence that the galactic nucleus of our Milky Way has some of the characteristics of AGNs.
[June 2004: I think that Sgr A* can easily be looked upon as the kinematic center of a former AGN (5-1). This would explain why the “black hole” in the center of our Milky Way (i.e. Sgr A*) is so much smaller than “black holes” of AGNs: the old AGN has shrunk and radiated away very much matter and “spat out” very much material, so eventually it has lost very much of its previous mass and the (smaller) objects of the old AGN compact source have become colder. (Though, perhaps that Sgr A* is an old (shrunken) starburst region of an AGN.) Perhaps that Sgr A* is an old quasar (Sgr A* may have been a quasar when our Milky Way was an elliptical galaxy, 4-3, 5-3).
Our Galaxy may have contained an AGN once (5-3). Sgr A* is the center of our Galaxy (4-1) and the kinematic centers of AGNs (seem to) lie in the centers of AGNs (5-1). Sgr A* may be the (old) kinematic center (compact source) of an old AGN (or perhaps rather the heart of Sgr A* may be the (old) kinematic center (compact source) of an old AGN). Where big bang astronomers consider Sgr A* to be a “starved black hole which is definitely on a severe diet”220 I see Sgr A* as (the center of) an old galaxy or an old cluster of galaxies (i.e. g-galaxy) that has shrunken very much and that may have had an AGN period, but which is not getting fuelled (anymore) with a lot of gas. End June 2004]
[July 2004: Though, perhaps Sgr A* can be the remains of an old elliptical giant galaxy that was once in the center of a cluster of galaxies. The rest of the old cluster of galaxies then may be the center of the nuclear bulge that surrounds Sgr A*. (Perhaps then that in the very center of Sgr A* the remains of an old AGN can be found.)
When the heart of Sgr A* has been an AGN then perhaps Sgr A* may become a compact source of an AGN in the future (5-1). End July 2004]
Many scientists think that there is a black hole in the galactic nucleus of the Milky Way, especially concerning Sagittarius A*.
Of course, in order to have an engine that can give the enormous power that is able to structure our (spiral-shaped) Galaxy (4-3) one way or the other there must be things of an amazing magnitude, like mass of magnitude 2.6 million MSun in a sphere with a diameter of 1 AU. [July 2004: Though, it remains to be seen how much the center of a galaxy shapes the stars in the galaxy directly by gravitational forces and how much the spiral is shaped by gas that rotates in a disk by gravitational forces (caused by a rotating center, 4-3). End July 2004]
Hydrogen may fall into the universal engine (4-3) and fall on (smaller and cold) dark matter objects, thus bringing O and OB stars and hot coronal gasses. HII and electrons may bring thermal bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation (sources that dominate radio maps of the overall galactic center region appear, when investigated at different wavelengths, to have characteristics of HII regions8).
[January 24 2006: It is a problem for big bang astronomers how stars can form so efficiently in a place like the galactic center, because it is hard for them to see how stars are still able to form in an environment with unusually strong magnetic fields and tidal shear forces394.
Thus, it may not be surprising that all kind of radiation comes from the nucleus of our Galaxy, like thermal and nonthermal radio continuum emission, infrared radiation, X-rays and even gamma rays8.
The X-ray emission from the nucleus of our Galaxy is expected to come from hot coronal gasses by thermal bremsstrahlung and gamma rays are expected to be caused by electron-positron annihilation. Conventional science considers both ways of radiation production to be possibly at work in AGNs43, though the origin of X-ray and gamma ray emission in AGNs is not understood43.
The X-ray map from the galactic center can roughly be seen as a circle, but this circle consists of discrete sources. If we would see our Galaxy from further away then perhaps these discrete sources would have been thought to be one source. The radiation coming from AGNs may come from many discrete sources with different temperatures, thus spectra can be flat and of a non-black body type, while the radiation is thermal black body radiation (5-1).
Right now X-ray sources in the galactic nucleus are suggested by conventional science to be due to hot coronal gasses. Could those sources be heated up dark matter? If the nucleus of our Galaxy contains an old g-galaxy then there must be many old and massive dark matter objects in the galactic nucleus, which may be heated up strongly by gravitational contraction, which thus may account for (part of the) X-ray radiation as well as (part of the) gamma radiation coming from the galactic nucleus.
More recent research once again points out that the galactic center of our Milky Way may be an excellent road to gain good understanding when it comes to AGNs. A long look by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has revealed new evidence that extremely hot gas exists in a large region at the center of the Milky Way. The intensity and spectrum of the high-energy X-rays produced by this gas present a puzzle as to how it is being heated191. The discovery came to light as a team of astronomers, led by Michael Muno of UCLA used Chandra's unique resolving power to study a region about 100 light years across and painstakingly remove the contributions from 2,357 point-like X-ray sources due to white dwarfs, foreground stars, background galaxies and, what they see as, neutron stars and black holes (both neutron stars and black holes may be theoretical outgrowths of relativity and a misunderstanding of gravity, 5-1). What remained was an irregular, diffuse glow from a 10-million-degree Celsius gas cloud, embedded in a glow of higher-energy X-rays with a spectrum characteristic of 100-million-degree gas. They think that the best explanation for the Chandra data is that the high-energy X-rays come from an extremely hot gas cloud, which, according to the team, brings significant shortcoming in understanding of heat sources in the center of our Galaxy (where it comes to big bang cosmology), the source of the heating remains a puzzle. The high-energy diffuse X-rays from the center of the Galaxy appear to be the brightest part of a ridge of X-ray emission observed by Chandra and previous X-ray observatories to extend for several thousand light years along the disk of the Galaxy. The extent of this hot ridge implies that it is probably not being heated by the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way.
I think that celestial objects with a high percentage of dark matter (i.e. with a high amount of (very) heavy elements in the core of the objects) may cause such objects to have high temperatures responsible for high energy rays.
Though, “dark” (merged) matter objects can be found in all kind of galaxies when stars in galaxies come to existence because gas assembles around (old) dark matter objects (7-1). Therefore it may not be surprising that X-ray sources are found in various locations in elliptical as well as spiral galaxies135 (which are a puzzle for big bang astronomers).
[January 2005: To peer into the galactic center astronomers have used the 6.5-meter-diameter Magellan Telescope in Chile. By gathering infrared light that more easily penetrates dust, the astronomers were able to detect thousands of stars that otherwise would have remained hidden. Their goal was to identify stars that orbit, and feed, X-ray-emitting white dwarfs, neutron stars or black holes - any of which could yield the faint X-ray sources discovered originally with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Chandra previously detected more than 2000 X-ray sources in the central 75 light-years of our galaxy. About four-fifths of the sources emitted mostly hard (high-energy) X-rays. The precise nature of those hard X-ray sources remained a mystery. Two possibilities were suggested by big bang astronomers: 1) high-mass X-ray binary systems, containing a neutron star or black hole with a massive stellar companion; or, 2) cataclysmic variables, containing a highly magnetized white dwarf with a low-mass stellar companion.
The majority of the larger spiral galaxies radiate in the radio continuum8, which may be due to larger spirals having stronger universal engines that are more likely to be capable of AGN activity.
One may wonder why there is so little AGN activity in the nucleus of our Galaxy. Perhaps this can be (partly) explained by gravitational shielding (3-2, 5-1) by all the matter surrounding the nucleus (and “pulling” at the nucleus). Once a lot of matter is radiated away (by nuclear processes) contraction of the nucleus may speed up, which may trigger stronger AGN activity.
Eventually, the nuclear bulge of our Galaxy may shrink into a “big bal” of very many objects in a small volume (for instance as big as our Solar System) that starts to show AGN activity. Or, in general: AGNs may descend from galaxies or g-galaxies. The centers (universal engines, 4-1) of galaxies or g-galaxies (4-1) may show AGN activity from certain (“galactic-evolutionary”) moments.
[February 2004: With tired light redshift instead of expansion redshift a lot of AGNs may be further away than expected so far (5-3). This may mean that the compact sources of AGN may be bigger than expected so far. Also because estimates by light flux variations may be different: 5-1. End February 2004]
[July 2004: Though, perhaps that an object like Sagittarius A* can become the compact source of an AGN too. End July 2004]
A big ball (which often may be a little oval) of “dark” matter objects/stars, with (most) merging taking place in the core, may explain why hotter and hotter radiation is found when going from the outside of the AGN nucleus, i.e. big ball/“compact” source, to the inside: if massive dark matter objects contract strongly by gravity and thus start glowing at (extremely) high temperatures, or: if massive dark matter objects have a thin layer of gas that contracts strong enough to fuse into higher elements (5-1).
Perhaps that temperatures raised by gravitational contraction of dark matter objects can go up to 1010 K or even higher (5-2) if no or little hydrogen surrounds the dark matter objects. Hydrogen may be radiated away from the “big ball” by radiation pressure, see hereafter at The Broad-Line Region (5-1).
[March 29 2005: There are so-called ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) that radiate 10 to 1000 times more X-ray power than what big bang astronomers call neutron stars and stellar mass black holes. Some big bang astronomers believe these mysterious ULXs are more powerful because they are intermediate mass black holes. Other big bang astronomers think ULXs are regular stellar-mass black holes that appear to be much more powerful in X-rays because their radiation is beamed in a jet toward Earth304.
A big ball, for instance with the size of our Solar System, filled with very many (slightly different) rotating/orbiting objects that may have their own peculiar velocities (4-1), may emit all kind of radiation in enormous amounts. This is my basic mechanism explaining the compact sources of AGNs. Of course, this “big ball” does not necessarily have to be extremely spherical.
AGNs show a high-energy cut-off at energies of around a few hundred keV43 (conventional AGN models have problems explaining this high-energy cut-off44). At energies higher than a few hundred keV, with a few notable exceptions such as NGC 4151, only blazar-type objects have been detected.
There may be a difference between objects in an AGN “big ball”/compact source that have a gas mantle (perhaps in “big balls”/compact sources of all AGNs except BL Lacertae objects) and objects in an AGN “big ball”/compact source that don't have a gas mantle (perhaps in the “big balls”/compact sources of BL Lacertae objects, 5-3).
The highest temperatures of AGNs are likely to be found at the very core of the central source of AGNs (i.e. the very core of the “big ball”) and from the very core to the more outer regions of the compact source/"big ball"/continuum source the temperature will go down. At a certain distance from the continuum source the starburst region may show up. The starburst region then may be the region where gas is not pushed away by radiation pressure of the continuum source anymore.
In the original galaxy or g-galaxy that originated the AGN there may have been many old galaxies/dark matter objects forming a rotating disk around the very (compact central) core of the galaxy/g-galaxy. When outboard gas from far away falls into the galaxy/g-galaxy much of the gas will be “caught” by the dark matter objects that form that disk. Thus a disk-shaped starburst region may be formed. An example of such a disk may be seen in the nearest active galaxy to Earth, Centaurus A; the disk was imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope in 199845.
[July 2003: If the nuclear bulge [July 2004: (or perhaps Sagittarius A*) End July 2004] of our Galaxy turns into the compact source of an AGN in the far future (5-1) then the spiral arms of our Galaxy may become a future disk-shaped starburst region when our Galaxy gets fuelled with hydrogen from intergalactic space. End July 2003]
Between the central source and the starburst region then may lie the Broad Line Region (5-1).
Unlike spectra of stars and galaxies, AGN spectra can not be described in terms of blackbody emission at a single temperature, or as a composite over a small range in temperature. Non-thermal processes, primarily synchrotron radiation, were thus invoked early to explain quasar spectra43.
A big ball of rotating (causing variability) hot “dark” matter objects (together with colder parts/objects in the central source) may account for long-term as well as short-term variability of the AGN (X-ray/UV/optical continuum) radiation (short-term variability may also be caused by supernovae as described in the starburst-AGN connection model).
Inside the very core of the big ball the biggest objects may be found that have the highest temperatures by gravitational contraction (or nuclear fusion within a thin layer). Further away smaller objects may cause lower frequency radiation. Variations may be caused either by rotation of the central source (thus bringing different objects to view) or by orbiting (and hence microlensing or/and view-blocking/obscuring) objects that lay more outward. One may think about variability as an inverse camera obscura effect. Instead of light going in (the camera obscura) light comes out because the hot inside emits hot radiation that can peak through the outside wall of colder objects, thus accounting for variability of the X-ray/UV/optical continuum.
One should keep in mind that the compact (central) source of an AGN may consist of a high number of old (merged?) galaxies/g-galaxies that still may have, in a way, their own peculiar orbiting/rotation velocities while orbiting the very core of the compact source (4-1), which may cause the variability's in fluxes to be non-periodic (perhaps over long times some periodicities may be found in some AGNs). And: if inside laying cores rotate in a different way (for instance: faster) than more outward laying cores then the variability in fluxes will be non-periodic (but perhaps not over very long times).
Variability by (more outwards laying) (concentrated groups of) objects may be caused by 2 mechanisms:
So far an important means of discriminating microlensing from intrinsic variability is that a microlensing event would have the same amplitude at all wavelengths (in general, intrinsic variations in AGNs are larger at higher frequencies)43. This is not true if one takes a “cloud” of dark matter objects as the “object” that passes in front of the AGN. Multiple dark matter objects will cause larger intrinsic variations for light that comes from more inner parts of the AGN, i.e. light with higher frequencies.
If rapid variability in gravitationally lensed QSOs is attributed to microlensing by intervening objects in the foreground, then the surface-brightness distribution of the QSO continuum-emitting region must be very compact in order for the variations to be fast and of detectable amplitude43. In the here described model AGNs can have extremely compact continuum-emitting regions.
The variations in the X-ray continuum are apparently correlated with variations at UV/optical wavelengths. It is often suggested that the UV/optical spectrum is a reprocessed version of the X-ray spectrum. The above mentioned mechanism with gas in the BLR/starburst region (which lies days from the central source) reprocessing the X-rays from the central source may be the answer. The BLR region is (light)days away from the central source, which may explain why UV/optical variations often show up after a few days. UV/optical variations thus may show up with less strong/sharp variability than the originating X-ray variability.
[January 2005: Miller and Homan, for the first time, found a connection between two characteristics of “black hole” observations: quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) and the broad iron K line. QPOs refer to the way the X-ray light seems to flicker. Using the Rossi Explorer, Miller and Homan studied a predominantly X-ray radiating object named GRS 1915+105, about 40,000 light years away in the constellation Aquila, the Eagle. They noticed that a low-frequency QPO of 1 to 2 hertz was tied to changes in the broad iron K line, as if the two features knew of each other. The fact that the two signals were in synch and were unaffected by other phenomena-such as “black hole” jet activity-strongly suggests that both are occurring very close to the “black hole”. And this, the big bang scientists say, rules out a theory stating that broad iron lines are created in “black hole” winds far from the object itself270.
In the outer regions of the central source many small dark matter objects may have very low temperatures, which then may cause microwaves or even (short wave) radio waves coming from the outer regions of the central source. Of course, no temperatures below 2.73 can be expected to be found easily, which limits the range of possible radio radiation by thermal black body radiation. Though, perhaps lower temperatures than 2.73 are possible with a cooling down mechanism as described with pulsars in 6-1. Thus perhaps it remains to be seen if the radio spectra of compact AGN sources do not have a thermal origin, as is strongly believed by conventional astronomy. The lowest possible temperature may then cause the low-energy cut-off of radio waves from compact AGN sources. [July 2004: The Boomerang Nebula has a temperature of 1 Kelvin and is the only object found so far (July 2004) that has a temperature lower than the background radiation215. So there is the possibility of objects with very low temperatures. In 6-1 it is suggested that the cause of the low temperature may be merging of dark matter objects (of two stars). The outer region of the compact source of an AGN may contain a lot of dark matter objects (and stars) which may get very low temperatures by merging of the dark matter objects (within the stars). End July 2004]
With the here described model of AGN-nuclei being formed by enormous balls, i.e. compact sources, and disks, i.e. starburst regions, of old (“dark”) matter (plus attracted starburst-hydrogen) it is not surprising that AGNs show such enormous radiation fluxes and that their surface brightness is very high (especially the surface brightness of the compact source).
Those enormous balls/disks can originate from: a galaxy that has shrunk, a cluster of galaxies that has shrunken, but also a supercluster or even a supersupercluster that has shrunken (for compact sources to originate: shrinking and merging).
And: with the tired light hypothesis instead of expansion redshift (1-2) quasars are even much further away than expected so far (no more relativistic z-distance calculation, 5-3). Thus quasars with high redshifts may be even much more luminous than expected so far.
(With tired light redshift it may be so that light redshifts more when going through space with relative more mass in it, like our Local Supercluster region. Thus light that goes mostly through large empty nonluminous voids may redshift less, compared to light coming from an object in our Local Supercluster. If so then this would mean that quasars with high redshift values may be at even further distances with even bigger fluxes.) [July 2004: This effect may have been measured: light going through rich galaxy clusters redshifts stronger (1-2). End July 2004]
It is observed that increasing luminosity of quasars corresponds to increasing metallicity in the emission line region. In the here described model increasing luminosity comes with larger amounts of dark matter (with heavy elements) which then may account for increasing metallicity (many dark matter objects will often clash, thus producing much dust/higher metallicity; but also: dark matter objects may produce supernova Type Ia, 5-2). [July 2003: In the case the high redshift of a quasar is caused by the quasar being far away then the quasar has a high luminosity which means that a lot of dark matter should be in the quasar or else the quasar would not have been high luminous. (The “big ball” or compact source is very luminous because of a lot of objects in a very small volume and hence in this small volume a lot of dark matter objects clash, thus causing much dust/high metallicity.) In the case the redshift of the quasar basically is caused by gravitational redshift then the quasar is very compact and probably has much dark matter relative to hydrogen. End July 2003]
[November 6 2007: Big bang astronomers have found that the gas in the center of the compact sources of quasars consists of almost pure hydrogen and helium, whereas the stars and other material in the surrounding giant galaxies are heavily contaminated by other elements such as carbon and oxygen. The astronomers think that the gas spirals towards a black hole469.
As discussed in 4-3: universal engines may attract hydrogen, thus originating galaxies. This then, of course, will be the same for AGNs if the center of an AGN is a universal engine (which attracts certain amounts of hydrogen from outer space). A universal engine forming the compact source of an AGN and attracting hydrogen at the same time thus may explain why AGNs are found in host galaxies.
In general brighter AGNs are found in more luminous galaxies43. With AGNs being universal engines that attract hydrogen, thus originating a host galaxy, this is not surprising.
When will an old g-galaxy or young universal engine start with AGN activity?
But, perhaps a g-galaxy don't need any infalling matter to turn itself into a universal engine with AGN features, or perhaps a universal engine only needs a certain minimum amount of attracted matter falling in, after which it produces AGN activity. Thus it may be that AGNs can be embedded in host galaxies that are very small and that quasars may have no host galaxy at all, which may have been observed29: “naked” quasars.
(Seyferts, radio galaxies and quasars may represent different phases of AGNs. The different phases may be the reason why certain types of host galaxies link with certain types of AGNs. See 5-3.)
Nearby companions of AGNs
The fields of QSOs contain a surprisingly large number of faint galaxies close to the same redshift as the QSO43. And: the probability of finding a galaxy at any distance r from a chosen galaxy is higher if the reference galaxy contains an AGN43.
This is not surprising at all if QSOs are universal engines at the centers of g-galaxies with large numbers of old (faint) galaxies orbiting those centers (g-galaxies descend from galaxy clusters, 4-1).
If a universal engine in the center of an old g-galaxy is attracting hydrogen (thus finally lightning up as an AGN) then other old (small) galaxies in de g-galaxy that orbit the center of the g-galaxy will lighten up by the hydrogen as well.
It is found that ~ 15% of Seyfert galaxies have companions, whereas only ~ 3% of a control sample of normal galaxies have such companions43.
Companions of Seyfert galaxies are also likely, relative to companions of normal galaxies, to show strong emission lines in their spectra43. This may be easily explained if Seyferts are likely to originate from shrunk galaxies or shrunk clusters of galaxies, which then will be in similar stages of their evolution if you take the galaxy formation explained in 4-1 in mind, see 5-4.
In 4-1 it is discussed that galaxies in clusters may show certain redshift periodicities. In the same chapter it was also mentioned that clusters may shrink, darken, attract hydrogen and become luminous again, but then as a galaxy or smaller cluster with less galaxies. Or a supercluster may shrink, darken, attract hydrogen and become luminous again, but then as a cluster (4-1).
If so than clusters combining as a group, thus forming a supercluster, will show periodicities too, and the same goes for super-clusters, super-super-superclusters too (if they exist).
Clusters may cluster like galaxies cluster. When galaxies or clusters are progenitors of universal engines that originate AGNs then the redshifts of AGNs may show periodicities too. And then AGNs cluster like galaxies cluster. Seyferts often show up as binaries and quasars are suspected to cluster too29, which may be explained by galaxies clustering, clusters, and AGNs descending from galaxies and/or clusters of galaxies.
Some AGNs have multiple nuclei43, which may be the same as the multiple nuclei in galaxies (4-3): a very old g-galaxy (4-1) in which galaxies or smaller g-galaxies have shrunken to a number of small universal engines (4-1), thus accounting for the multiple nuclei.
When galaxies or g-galaxies can shrink into a rotating “ball” of objects (5-1) then this ball may have certain features that may explain the Broad-Line Region in AGNs.
With a very compact rotating “ball” of (old) dark matter objects (heated by gravitational contraction or nuclear fusion) one gets an AGN compact source with very high surface brightness. This extremely high surface brightness may cause so much radiation pressure (by continuum emission from the “big ball” or: “compact” source or continuum source) that infalling atoms/ions get pushed away from the AGN big ball/compact source. Thus, after moving with a certain speed to the compact source, the atoms/ions start moving with a certain speed away from the compact source.
But at a certain moment the radiation pressure diminishes and so the speed of the atoms/ions will be diminished by the enormous pull of gravity coming from the AGN compact source. Thus the atoms/ions may start to fall back to the AGN core until they are stopped by radiation pressure again that blows them away from the compact source again, etc. This may be the way the Broad-Line Regions (BLRs) of AGNs are formed. (Of course, individual atoms/ions may assemble in (BLR) clouds/streams.)
In our Sun's chromosphere exactly the same mechanism is at work (where the Sun's corona, with its forbidden lines, shows more Narrow-Line Region characteristics).
[March 28 2005: One may argue that if the BLR is a gas mantle surrounding the compact source of AGNs then we would not see the compact source, instead we would see the gas mantle, like we see the Sun's chromosphere and not what is underneath the Sun's chromosphere. However, when one thinks of the gravitational forces and radiation pressure of our Sun and the gravitational forces and radiation pressure of red giants one understands that in the case of red giants the “gas mantle” is not as massive as the Sun's chromosphere. The gas of the BLR may be much more dilute/less massive than the “gas mantle” of a red giant because of much stronger gravitational forces combined with much stronger radiation pressure by the compact source of the AGN. Therefore at least part of the radiation coming from the compact source may find its way through the BLR. End March 28 2005]
[June 2004: One out of million stars in our Galaxy is a supergiant, like Betelgeuse, which even at a distance of 425 light-years is the seventh brightest star visible in the northern hemisphere. The photospheric surface of Betelgeuse is about as large as Jupiter's orbit. So far telescopes on Earth detected the warm gas in Betelgeuse's weak chromosphere up to only about five times the radius of the photosphere.
When a supergiant can be an object that consists of multiple stars then one may expect that some very large stars show variability because the multiple objects within the stars orbit each other, thus bringing different magnitudes of luminosity.
[March 25 2005: A team of big bang astronomers has checked out the X-ray sources of many far away objects, i.e. the centers of far away galaxies. The team has observed that the chemical abundance of iron in the centers/AGNs of very far away galaxies is about three times higher than in our Solar system. This came as a surprise for them, for they had not expected to find so much iron in their early big bang universe. The width of the iron line indicated that the iron atoms must have high speeds299.
[May 2004: The center of the active Circinus spiral galaxy spews out gas and dust in a broad spray like clouds of vapor from a steam locomotive89. While other active galaxies drive narrow relativistic jets, the Circinus center drives a comparatively meek wind. It is not understood by big bang astronomers what mechanism causes the meek wind89. Perhaps that radiation pressure by continuum emission from a “big ball” can explain the wind. End May 2004]
Cross-correlation lags of helium are shorter than the cross-correlation lags of hydrogen. In general: the cross-correlation lags of heavier elements are shorter than those of lighter elements43. This may be because heavier elements will be stopped later by radiation pressure from the AGN central source than lighter elements.
One may expect this “compactness thing” to be kind of the same for gravity particles (causing gravitational forces) relative to photons (causing radiation pressure), but this may not be the case at all. Gravity particles are likely to be much smaller and to be around in far greater numbers than photons. Thus the “compactness thing”, i.e. the density, of an atom will have much stronger influence on the “hit chance” by photons than the “hit chance” by gravity particles (3-2). Thus more compact, denser atoms (i.e. HeII relative to HeI) may come closer to the central source before stopped by radiation pressure than less dense atoms.
Equivalent widths of the CIV emission line tends to decrease systematically with increasing continuum luminosity: the Baldwin effect. The origin of the Baldwin effect is not understood43.
In a single spectrum different emission lines may have different widths. It is often found, for example, that the helium lines HeIIλ4686 and HeIλ5876 are broader than the hydrogen Balmer lines in BLRs43. This too may be due to helium coming closer to the AGN core and thus helium deals with more fierceful (radiation pressure/gravitational) forces and hence gets higher velocities, i.e. broader emission lines.
Also: the higher-ionization lines (e.g., HeIIλ4686) are shifted blueward relative to the lower-ionization lines (e.g., HeIλ5876)43. This may be due to HeI being stripped of an electron near the compact source, then moving away (by radiation pressure) from the compact source as HeII (which then is blueshifted relative to HeI). The HeII is stopped by gravitational attraction and changes to a HeI by gaining an electron and goes back to the central source (hence HeI being redshifted relative to HeII). (Closer to the central source the helium gets hit more by photons and thus closer to the central source helium is more likely to become HeII.)
Changes in emission-line profiles are not reverberation effects, and they are not correlated with the continuum variability in any obvious way43. Line-profile changes may be due to atoms, or perhaps rather clouds of atoms (with different concentrations), moving to the compact source and/or away from the compact source while the compact source and BLR are rotating (with different ways of rotation, so no correlation with the continuum variability). Rotation that may bring different atoms (clouds of atoms) in the line-of-sight and hence emission-line profiles change.
Above I described in A big ball that the massive objects in the compact source may glow by gravitational contraction. But perhaps that those objects produce their hot radiation (too) by nuclear fusion processes. In 6-2 it is described that white dwarfs may be massive dark matter objects with relatively little gas that is fused into higher elements as in stars. But because the gas layer then is relatively small the stars/white dwarfs may be much hotter than normal stars. Thus perhaps that the compact sources of AGNs are big balls with many (big) white dwarfs, or: stars with big cores of heavy elements, that fuse gas into higher elements.
The UV-excess method to detect QSOs also selects white dwarfs. This may not be a coincidence. A white dwarf may be a single hot relatively big heavy metal nucleus object (which may have a gas layer) (6-2) close to us. A QSO may be a big ball of many hot relatively big heavy metal nuclei objects (which may have gas layers) far from us.
Differences between Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs, like Seyfert 1s versus Seyfert 2s, may be caused by: Seyfert 1s have stronger universal engines that are capable of producing sufficient radiation pressure in order to make a BLR.
Quasars may be in a certain evolutionary (more shrunk universal engine) phase and hence QSOs may have such compact concentrated “big balls” that there is always a BLR, which then may explain the absence of Type 2 QSOs.
[June 2004: A few years ago astronomers reported to have found the first very distant representative of a Type II QSO at a distance of z=3.7180 and recently more Type II QSOs were reported to be found at large distances (z > 3)181.
When Seyferts have compact source regions that are less hot then those colder regions produce less radiation and hence cause less radiation pressure that causes broad emission lines. Thus a rotating compact source, i.e. “big ball” may explain Seyfert 1.5s turning into Seyfert 2s and back again within years.
(As mentioned (5-1): continuum variability may show no periodicity because different regions in “the big ball” may have peculiar velocities. Thus variability between Seyfert 1.5s and Seyfert 2s may show no periodicity either.)
Seyfert 2s may evolve into Seyfert 1s (for good, I'm not mentioning Seyfert 1/2 variability here) by shrinking of the compact source, which then produces stronger radiation pressure/gets a higher surface brightness, until a BLR originates.
Bigger Seyfert 2s (more luminous than Seyfert 1s) have more continuum. This continuum then ought to come from a “big ball” that is more luminous (with more luminous objects in a larger compact source), but which still has a surface brightness/radiation pressure that is too low to create a Broad Line Region.
The narrow-line to broad-line luminosity ratio is a decreasing function of radio luminosity: the narrow lines are relatively weaker in more luminous radio sources43.
Seyfert 2 galaxies are less (or not at all) polarized compared to Seyfert 1 galaxies, the continua of Seyfert 2 galaxies are in general not polarized43.
Seyfert 1s may have attracted more (outboard) dust, or produced more (inboard) dust (by clashing dark matter objects and/or supernovae), which may cause polarization (5-3). [July 2004: This can be seen as support for Seyfert 2s shrinking into Seyfert 1s, thus having more dark matter objects in a smaller volume of space, resulting in more clashes between dark matter objects producing dust. Shrinking also means more concentration of dust. Also, when Seyfert 2s are progenitors of Seyfert 1s, then there has been more time for dark matter objects to clash as well as more time for supernovae to produce dust. End July 2004]
Polarization by electrons may be most likely. The polarization of the featureless continuum of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 (which is an exception to the Seyfert-2-no-polarization rule) is wavelength independent as far into the UV as 1500 angstrom, which indicates that the scattering particles are electrons rather than dust43. And: the observed polarization in the continuum of AGNs increases dramatically towards shorter wavelengths43.
Seyfert 2 galaxies sometimes show an extended component of continuum emission whose origin is unknown43.
There is X-ray (“continuum”) emission coming from the center of our Galaxy. The X-ray emission map shows very many discrete sources (which then may be gravitationally glowing “dark” matter objects or, rather, “dark” matter objects/white dwarfs fed by infalling gas). The overall picture is that of an oval heap of X-ray sources, with the major axis in the galactic equator, and with several extended parts8.
The clouds of the Narrow-Line Regions (NLRs) of AGNs may be caused by infalling gas from intergalactic space (outboard gas, 4-4) as well as by BLR clouds that are ejected by radiation pressure of the AGN compact source. If the continuum emission of AGNs can change then every now and then there may be an extremely strong radiating area in the compact source blowing a BLR cloud outside the (BLR-)region. Thus BLR clouds may become NLR clouds. NLR clouds may become BLR clouds when gravity (by the compact source) “pulls in” NLR clouds.
In the NLR region a similar process may exist as in the BLR: clouds may get pushed outwards (a little) by radiation pressure and pushed inwards (a little) by gravity. “A little” and hence narrow lines instead of broad lines.
There have been measurements that show continuity between the NLR and the BLR. In both BLR and NLR there is stratification of some sort, with either density or ionization level (or both) increasing towards the center43. If the density and velocity dispersion increase as one gets closer to the nucleus, the NLR may merge more or less naturally with the BLR43.
With the above BLR model the merging of BLR and NLR may make sense, because some individual atoms/ions in the BLR will get faster velocities (by being hit, by chance, by more photons) and thus those ions are likely to go to the NLR, and: there may be no reason why there wouldn't be atoms/ions falling into the BLR.
Red giants can collapse, and thus they can produce bipolar outflows and originate white dwarfs.
[February 2004: According to conventional astronomy. The formation of red giants may be a bit different, though. Perhaps red giants are stars (like white dwarfs may be) that have assembled hydrogen, but in a way as in AGNs that get a BLR: hydrogen is attracted to the star/white dwarf, but is kept at a certain distance by radiation pressure (7-1). Perhaps that at a certain moment the (central) star/white dwarf becomes depleted and then the surrounding gas collapses into the central star, which then originates bipolar outflows as with Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), see hereafter. End February 2004]
Also in star formation processes bipolar outflows are observed: YSOs, which may be originated by dark matter objects (7-1).
If a dark matter object rotates fiercely and infalling gas contracts on it, then the object may release or rather squeeze gas outward perpendicular to the rotation disk bipolar along the rotation axis of the disk, accretion energy thus converting into that of (bipolar) outflows.
[June 2004: According to big bang theory and observations material from a protostellar cloud cannot fall directly into an infant star, it first lands in an accretion disk and only moves inward to fall onto the star after it has shed its angular momentum. That process of angular momentum transfer, along with the evolution of magnetic fields, leads to the launching of the bipolar outflows of YSOs according to big bang astronomers. These outflows eventually clear away the envelope, leaving a newborn star surrounded by an accretion disk137. Perhaps that accretion disks around the center of “Young Seyfert Objects” bring ionization cones of Seyfert 2s, see hereafter. End June 2004]
Matter may get squeezed out when fast infalling matter does not have the time to form a heavy compact “ball” around the inner spherical object (like white dwarfs in red giants and dark matter objects in YSOs), i.e. to form a solid compact sphere. This situation may exist in AGNs too, i.e. in Seyferts 2s, which then may account for bipolar outflows of Seyferts 2s like in Seyfert 1s.
Seyfert 2s don't have a Broad Line Region, so gas that falls into the very core isn't pushed outwards. Thus, in the case of Seyfert 2s big amounts of gas may fall on the central AGN core of a Seyfert 2 and the same process may start as in collapsing red giants or in YSOs: gas is squeezed out (bipolar) along the rotation axis. Thus ionization cones may be produced.
Gas falling into a Seyfert 2 core may light up on dark matter objects and thus finally cause stronger radiation pressure coming from the AGN core, thus creating a BLR and thus changing a Seyfert 2 into a Seyfert 1.
Part of the gas falling into the compact source (or perhaps rather: the center that may be on its way to become a compact source) of a Seyfert 2 may not flow out of the compact source (into the ionization cones) and stay in the compact source. Thus the objects of compact sources in Seyferts (and AGNs in general; though BL Lacertae objects may be an exception, 5-3) may be surrounded with layers of gas (5-1).
Seyfert 1s may become radio quiet QSOs (5-3). Perhaps the outflowing gas, i.e. the ionization cones, of Seyfert 2s (on their way to become Seyfert 1s) later can become broad absorption line (BAL) systems (5-3).
The well-known quasar 3C 273 shows a huge blob of material that is moving away from the quasar. Perhaps this can be explained by the shrinking of g-galaxies or, perhaps rather: galaxies/smaller g-galaxies within (larger) g-galaxies.
The density of objects becomes important with pushing gravity (3-2): a shrunk g-galaxy or galaxy (or universal engine) may “fly out” of a (bigger) g-galaxy (i.e. away from the “main” universal engine 3C 273), because the shrunk heap of matter has become more dense and thus the main part of the quasar kind of lost gravitational “grip” on the shrunk heap of matter. Thus the blob of material moving away from 3C 273 may be a galaxy/g-galaxy/universal engine that has escaped from 3C 273 by shrinking/becoming more dense.
It may be very likely that a lot of new material (stars, gas, dust, dark matter objects) has fallen into the nucleus of our Galaxy, i.e. the old g-galaxy. Thus the shrunk g-galaxy in the nucleus has become more compact: by shrinking and by additional matter falling into the nucleus of our Galaxy. Thus it may be that older galaxies like spirals and irregulars Is have nuclei that are hold together stronger than nuclei in younger galaxies like ellipticals (which are host galaxies of quasars).
Also the radio galaxy M87 shows knots of material leaving the galaxy. An explanation may be that the knots of material have left M87 because of radio loud activity, i.e. streams of radio loud material flowing from the nucleus may have taken knots of material with them on the way out.
If the central region of an AGN is a universal engine/compact source surrounded by a starburst region then it is quite likely that there are old remnants of the old g-galaxy (4-1) swirling around this central region. Of course the compact source consists of dark matter (fuelled with new gas) of the old g-galaxy too, as well as the starburst region consists of old dark matter objects (fuelled with new gas).
When old dark matter orbits the central region of the AGN then it is, of course, likely that the (planes of the) orbits are mostly found perpendicular to the rotation axis of the central region/compact source. And: a lot of dark matter objects will have a lot of dust too (by clashing of dark matter objects). Also outboard dust (4-4) and outboard matter from intergalactic space may accumulate around the central region of an AGN. And: (outboard) gas then will be attracted to the dark matter/dust. Thus a dark matter/dust/gas torus of an AGN175 may be explained.
Perhaps that the torus can be originated from old outward orbiting material of the old g-galaxy (that originated the AGN) only (or as good as only). Such outward orbiting material, i.e. old galaxies or old (smaller/minor) g-galaxies, once far away from the (old) center of the (major) g-galaxy (which has become the central region, i.e. compact source and starburst region, of the AGN), may have assembled themselves in a disk, which then may consist of many (relatively small) dark matter objects that may have crashed a lot and thus may have caused a lot of dust. One may call such torus material inboard material.
[June 2004: Not only AGNs have gas/dust tori. Also galaxies have gas/dust tori, or rather: gas/dust disks (on the inside, 4-3, as well as on the outside, 4-4), which I also explain with dark matter objects within old galaxies/g-galaxies clashing. Also stars have gas/dust tori in a way: accretion disks, which I also explain with dark matter objects/debris that may have come to fly around the stars, 7-2.
Probably most, if not (about) all, gas is outboard gas, where dust may be outboard as well as inboard, and most, if not (about) all, dark matter (objects) may be inboard.
(Inside (in the center of) this torus another disk has formed itself from much more concentrated dark matter objects and concentrated gas: the starburst region. Inside (in the center of) this starburst region lies the central compact source, which consists of even much more concentrated matter.)
In chapter 3-2 and 4-3 it is explained (with pushing gravity) that one may have to differentiate for different materials, different outboard matter (gas, dust and dark matter objects), coming from intergalactic space. Gas may fall “easier” straight to an object in space than dust, while dust may fall “easier” to an object than dark matter objects: dark matter objects will stick more strongly to the direction of their incoming speed, i.e. dark matter objects start orbiting a rotating (rotation that will influence the direction of the dark matter objects) central region with a universal engine/compact source inside (thus the dark matter objects form a disk, like planets in solar systems, 7-1) where dust falls stronger into the central region and gas clouds probably fall even more stronger into the central region. But by doing so dust and gas may “stick” to the dark matter objects that orbit the central region.
The torus and the starburst disk of an AGN may form some kind of gravitational shield (3-2) to the central source. Thus the BLR clouds may be pushed by radiation pressure into the starburst region (more easily than the BLR clouds are pushed into the NLR (not shielded by torus/starburst disk). Thus perhaps that gas/atoms/clouds from the NLR can go to the BLR and then, finally, get pushed into the starburst region (perhaps it remains to be seen whether or not there is also a BLR between the compact source and the disk (i.e. in the plane of the disk)).
Narrow-line X-ray galaxies (NLXGs) are Seyferts whose optical spectra are heavily reddened and extinguished by dust within the galaxy. NLXGs may be (older) Seyferts that have attracted more outboard dust, or they may have, for some reason, more (inboard or outboard) dark matter objects that have clashed a lot (for example because galaxies or g-galaxies started orbiting the central region with opposite orbiting directions, thus clashing a lot and hence forming much dust, 7-2).
Part 1 The expansion redshift paradigm
Part 2 The relativity paradigm
Part 3 The quantum mechanics and Newtonian gravity paradigms
Part 4 The big bang paradigm
Part 5 The black hole paradigm
Part 6 The neutron star and degenerate gas paradigms
Part 7 The star formation and solar system formation paradigms