THE INFINITE UNIVERSE (Part 4, Chapter 4-3)
© Eit Gaastra
CONTENTS of this website (bottom of this webpage)
PART 4 THE BIG BANG PARADIGM
Part 4 (chapters 4-1 –› 4-4) presents an infinite universe as an alternative for big bang cosmology.
CHAPTER 4-3: GALAXY FORMATION 1
A hydrogen production mechanism must be somehow somewhere at work in an infinite universe (possible mechanisms are discussed in 3-2, 5-2 and 6-1).
It is assumed in this chapter and in chapter 4-4 that everywhere throughout space there are streams/concentrations of hydrogen that can flow to strong concentrations of (baryonic) matter in the form of galaxies, universal engines (4-1) and g-galaxies (4-1). A universal engine, which can be a shrunk galaxy or a shrunk cluster of (shrunk) galaxies (= g-galaxy), can attract hydrogen and by doing so it can originate a new galaxy (see hereafter) or an AGN (5-1).
[June 2004: Recently a team of astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) has made the first conclusive detection of neutral hydrogen clouds swarming around and towards the Andromeda Galaxy. Spectral and photometric analysis of young stars in the Milky Way and other galaxies show that there are a certain number of young stars that are surprisingly bereft of heavy elements. Neutral hydrogen clouds entering galaxies may explain such stars144.
An example of a relatively very small g-galaxy that has been fuelled by hydrogen/gas from intergalactic/intercluster space may be the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1569, which is a hot bed of recent vigorous star birth activity. It harbors two very prominent young, massive clusters plus a large number of smaller star clusters. The two young massive clusters match the globular star clusters we find in our own Milky Way galaxy, while the smaller ones are comparable with the less massive open clusters around us145.
[July 9 2006: Recently astronomers have found much more neutral hydrogen gas than they expected among spirals and ellipticals. They were also quite surprised about the temperature of the gas, which was much colder than they expected419. The big bang astronomers think the gas is spit out by the galaxies, but perhaps the gas has come from intercluster space, perhaps the gas was produced by radio loud activity long ago (4-1). End July 9 2006]
[February 1 2008: A giant cloud of hydrogen gas is speeding toward a collision with our Milky Way Galaxy, and it will hit our galaxy in less than 40 million years. Eleven thousand light-years long and 2,500 light-years wide, it is only 8,000 light-years from our Galaxy's disk en careening toward our galaxy at more than 150 miles per second. Big bang astronomers think the cloud is most likely a gas cloud left over from the formation of the Milky Way or gas stripped from a neighbor galaxy478. I wonder if they are right. Perhaps most of the gas cloud comes from a radio loud quasar (5-2). End February 1 2008]
[February 2005: Using the Very Large Array (VLA) at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in New Mexico, the Keck telescopes in Hawaii and the Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers Wil van Breugel and Steve Croft have shown that a peculiar starburst system in the NGC 541 radio galaxy, formed when a radio jet - undetectable in visible light but revealed by radio observations - triggered star formation. The big bang astronomers think that the radio jets are due to electrons that are propelled out of the surrounding of a massive black hole. The electrons radiate at radio frequencies because of their motion in magnetic fields. The electrons may affect the formation of stars when they collide with dense gas276.
cD galaxies and (giant/big) ellipticals may come to existence because a (gravitational) strong (big) g-galaxy may have been attracting hydrogen for a very long time.
Thus hydrogen may (have been) stream(ing) to a g-galaxy that has an elliptical form, or to an already (partly) shrunk g-galaxy: a universal engine with an elliptical form.
[October 16 2006: Within the galaxy formation theory on this website it is suggested that a cluster of galaxies may shrink and end up as a sphere of (torn apart) old galaxies. Such an old cluster may get fuelled with new hydrogen/gas from intercluster space and become a cD galaxy or giant elliptical galaxy. Recently astronomers have found the Spiderweb Galaxy. The Hubble Space Telescope has found this large galaxy 10.6 billion (big bang) light-years away from Earth (at a redshift of 2.2). The Hubble image shows the Spiderweb Galaxy sitting at the centre of an emergent galaxy cluster, surrounded by hundreds of other galaxies from the cluster. The Spiderweb Galaxy is stuffing itself with smaller galaxies caught like flies in a web of gravity437. The Spiderweb Galaxy and its surrounding galaxies may become a cD galaxy or giant elliptical galaxy in the far future (with or without a phase in which the galaxy/cluster of galaxies have become dark; dark until they get refuelled with new hydrogen/gas). End October 16 2006]
cD galaxies appear superficially to be ellipticals, but they have greatly extended envelopes and, frequently, multiple nuclei.
Multiple nuclei of cD galaxies then ought to have high orbiting speed around each other, which is observed: Doppler-shift data indicate that the nuclei within a cD move at relative speeds of about 1000 km/s8, which may make sense, because that is of the order of the largest peculiar velocities of galaxies in (super)clusters (4-1) which are the progenitors of large g-galaxies on this website (4-1).
cD galaxies are located at the centers of clusters, which may make sense, because one is likely to find the strongest g-galaxies/universal engines at the centers of clusters.
cD galaxies may shrink into giant ellipticals, which are, after cD galaxies, the galaxies of the largest magnitude. Also giant ellipticals are located at the centers of clusters and also giant ellipticals have multiple nuclei.
Though, ellipticals may also originate from universal engines (or: a shrunk galaxy or a shrunk g-galaxy/shrunk cluster) without a “cD” phase.
[July 2004: There may be another reason why we find cD galaxies and giant ellipticals at the centers of clusters. Gas from intercluster space may flow into clusters. Galaxies in the center then will get hydrogen coming from all sides which may enrich the galaxy in the center of the cluster from all sides, thus no spiral comes to existence (with spiral formation as mentioned in 4-3) in the center of the cluster, the elliptical remains an elliptical with no or hardly a dark matter halo because all darkened stars are fed with hydrogen (coming from all sides). Spiral galaxies that are not in the center of clusters may be fed with hydrogen/gas coming from one side (gas from outside the clusters streaming towards the center) and therefore may become spirals as mentioned in 4-3. End July 2004]
The diameters of cD galaxies range up to 2000 kpc where the diameters of ellipticals range up to 200 kpc. cD galaxies may therefore too be progenitors of (at least some) giant elliptical galaxies.
[May 2003: G-galaxies that have turned dark may be very stable systems (compared to luminous galaxies that are changing relatively fast because luminous stars burn away mass) that endure for a very long time and thus it may be that the amount of luminous (baryonic) matter in the universe is very small compared to the amount of nonluminous/dark (baryonic) matter. But: in a universe with an ether (or ethers if it turns out that there are even smaller particles to be found than gravity particles, see 3-1) the total (luminous matter and dark matter) amount of baryonic matter may be very small compared to the amount of non-baryonic matter (4-2).
On the other hand, though, I more and more think that galaxies, clusters, superclusters, super-superclusters, etc. are shrinking continuously while attracting hydrogen continuously, i.e. galaxies, clusters, etc., but also old (dark) galaxies and g-galaxies may (as good as) always be at least a little luminous (for there will always be a few stars shining. My guess is now that big non-luminous voids will appear to be less non-luminous, i.e. weak (visible light) sources may come to the front when one takes a better sharper look. End May 2003]
G-galaxies that have turned dark may be very stable systems, but when after extremely many years enough hydrogen (and other elements, like helium and metals) has been attracted to a g-galaxy and the hydrogen starts concentrating towards the g-galaxy and thus stars are born and a new cD galaxy (or a large elliptical galaxy, which perhaps may not necessarily always be proceeded by a cD galaxy) comes to existence, then finally the g-galaxy may contract to a central core because of new infalling hydrogen and stars (that have a certain “infalling” momentum).
And: if the g-galaxy attracts mass from outside then this will cost energy which may reduce the orbiting speeds in the g-galaxy which then contracts faster. Also: gas (and, perhaps, dust) falling into a g-galaxy may cause stronger inertial forces (I don't mean inertial forces by gravity here), thus reducing the orbiting speed too.
A big nonluminous void may have a big g-galaxy at its center with one or more huge universal engines, or: dark (shrunk) g-galaxies.
Thus it may not be surprising that the center of the regular super Coma cluster has two large elliptical galaxies that lie near the center, about which the other galaxies seem to concentrate: the two large ellipticals may have originated from strong universal engines that have descended from one or two shrunk g-galaxies.
Other rich regular clusters, such as A2199, are dominated by cD galaxies.
Closer to the center of a g-galaxy more old galaxies/dark matter objects will be concentrated and around those objects hydrogen will concentrate itself until stars light up in starbursts. Such a center thus may light up as a Blue Compact Dwarf (4-1), which later may evolve into a giant elliptical (or cD galaxy). Thus the centers of (giant) ellipticals may become very bright.
[May 8 2006: XMM-Newton observations of the galaxy cluster RX J1416.5+2315, show a cloud of hot gas emitting X-rays. The cloud, reaching temperatures of about 50 million degrees, extend over 3.5 million light years and surround a giant elliptical galaxy. Big bang astronomers believe the elliptical to have grown to its present size by cannibalizing its neighbours and therefore think that the elliptical is a very old galaxy and therefore call the elliptical a fossil galaxy. But there is a problem for big bang astronomers: they don't know how the elliptical and cluster could have formed, because in their models is too little time for the “fossils” to have formed. Only about two percent of the mass in the cluster was found to be in the form of stars in galaxies, 15 percent is in the form of hot gas emitting X-rays. The major contributor to the mass of the system is invisible dark matter, which gravitationally binds the other components416. Within an infinite universe an old cluster may have darkened, explaining the large amount of dark matter, and attracted massive gas from intercluster space, explaining the large amount of gas. Much old galaxies in the old cluster may have merged in the center of the galaxy where attracted gas then may have lighted up a new elliptical. End May 8 2006]
[July 24 2007: The origin of a bright arc of tenuous gas at 170 million degree Celsius extending over two million light years in a massive galaxy cluster is a puzzle for big bang astronomers458. Perhaps this puzzle can be solved when one thinks of an infinite universe in which old shrunken galaxies concentrate themselves, thus slowly attracting giant heaps of gas from the surrounding universe by gravity. Heaps of gas that light up as stars when concentrated and thus heating up other (still tenuous) nearby gas. End July 24 2007]
There may be a lot of heavy elements in the universal engine or the center of an elliptical (heavy elements in the form of dark matter objects and in the form of dust originated by clashing of dark matter objects) but not outside the universal engine/center of an elliptical, which may account for the low heavy element content in the stars of ellipticals and the low dust concentration in ellipticals. (One has to take in mind here, though, that the outer regions of stars probably are not representative for the (overall) element content of stars, see 7-1).
When occasionally there is a little more dark matter/dust somewhere in an elliptical galaxy then Population I stars can come to existence in that part of the elliptical, which may explain the existence of Population I stars (sometimes) in ellipticals.
Perhaps that a (less concentrated) more-disk shaped old big g-galaxy may turn in a (more diffuse) cD galaxy by attracting hydrogen where a (stronger concentrated) more-sphere shaped old big g-galaxy may turn into a (more concentrated giant) elliptical by attracting hydrogen (5-3).
In an eternal universe the “15 billion years limit” is gone and thus elliptical galaxies can take as much time as they want to turn themselves into spirals, which may bring back the Hubble fork.
Depending on the mass and rotation of the universal engine (4-1) in its center an elliptical galaxy may turn into a spiral galaxy.
The rotating universal engine slowly may bring the attracted matter into rotation. Thus elliptical galaxies already may rotate around their axes (very slowly). Little by little the universal engine in the nucleus of the galaxy brings the whole galaxy more and more into rotation until the galaxy more and more transforms from a more sphere shaped galaxy into a more disk shaped galaxy. Gravitational forces may cause stars, dark matter and hydrogen to flow into certain “rivers” of matter (rotating the nuclear bulge while slowly flowing to the nuclear bulge), thus accounting for the spiral arms of the galaxy.
[September 3 2005: Seen in visible light NGC 4625, a relatively nearby galaxy, only shows a diffuse halo, with a hint of spiral arms. But in the ultraviolet gaze of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer, it clearly has vast spiral arms which extend four times the size of the galaxy's core. The galaxy therefore puzzles big bang astronomers348.
[May 2004: It remains to be seen whether or not elliptical galaxies really flatten when they turn into spiral galaxies. Perhaps they only appear to flatten, while in reality the flow of gas within the galaxy brings the luminous part of the galaxy into a spiral shape (4-4). End May 2004]
Spirals thus may be older galaxies than ellipticals, though it depends on the magnitude of the galaxies: smaller ellipticals generally may turn into spirals sooner and so a giant elliptical may be older than a relatively small spiral.
Elliptical galaxies may be young and therefore spherical. They may be more shaped by gravitational attraction by the universal engine in the center of the galaxy. Only later the rotation of the universal engine may get more grip on the elliptical galaxy, which then turns into a spiral. (Perhaps ellipticals don't necessarily (always) have to be progenitors of spirals, see 5-3.)
When an elliptical galaxy has finally become a spiral galaxy much mass has been radiated away and much mass has become nonluminous and the galaxy has shrunk. This may be the reason why spiral galaxies do not exhibit the great range of masses and sizes of the elliptical galaxies (4-4).
As with (giant) ellipticals and cD galaxies the cores of spiral galaxies often have multiple (smaller) nuclei, as is the case in our Galaxy and the Andromeda galaxy (4-3).
The nuclei of the galactic center of our Galaxy should have lost very much momentum by bringing all the matter of our Galaxy into rotation, thus creating the spiral structure.
Perhaps ellipticals slowly adjust themselves to the enormous rotating power that is in their core: the universal engine that may attract hydrogen gas, dust and dark matter from outside the (old) elliptical (outboard material, 4-4), while at the same time it may attract Population II stars, concentrated hydrogen, dust and dark matter (like black dwarfs) from inside the (old) elliptical (inboard material).
One may argue: suppose you have a large amount of dark matter that does not rotate or that hardly rotates (a big universal “engine” without rotation), then this could cause an elliptical to come to existence and then the elliptical won't start to rotate and hence won't become a spiral later.
One may question why we see giant ellipticals in the centers of superclusters, why have they not yet turned into spirals? Giant ellipticals may need more time to change into spirals.
The universal engine rotating in the center of the elliptical galaxy is attracting and starting the rotation of enormous amounts of mass. Not only the enormous amounts of mass in the form of matter in the elliptical galaxy itself, but also enormous amounts of mass in the form of other galaxies moving towards the giant elliptical and which are “pulling” at the giant elliptical, which then may shrink less fast. This “pulling” is gravitational shielding (3-2), prohibiting a central galaxy from (strong) shrinking (4-3).
Thus it may take a very long time for a giant elliptical to speed up its rotation rate. (Giant ellipticals may already rotate, but very slowly.) This may be part of the reason why elliptical galaxies are often found in the densest cluster cores of superclusters, i.e. why they have not turned into spirals yet.
The clusters/galaxies in the space region close to us may all be of a certain “generation” (4-3, 5-4) of clusters/galaxies that have originated from an enormous old g-galaxy. Thus perhaps further away we see more spirals in the middle of clusters. But then: big spirals in the middle of clusters, originating from giant ellipticals, may have needed so much time to become a spiral at last, that by then the cluster has shrunk and all cluster galaxies surrounding the old giant have (completely or partly) darkened and approached the old elliptical, which by then has become a spiral, and hence we do not see a cluster, we only see a giant spiral (with a few small galaxies surrounding it). This spiral may have become a Seyfert galaxy by then (5-1).
Perhaps young ellipticals are more sphere-like when the g-galaxy in the core is more sphere-like and perhaps young ellipticals are more flattened when the g-galaxy in the core is more flattened (5-3).
The shape of an elliptical may depend on:
Our Galaxy has an expended disk with gas and stars and in the direction of the galactic plane the spatial density of the stars increases and their metal abundance rises8.
This may be due to the “grip” the rotation of the center of our Galaxy has on gas, stars and dust, which are attracted to the core of our Galaxy. [July 2004: In an elliptical a disk of dust has been discovered, which may be due to the old g-galaxy that originated the elliptical (4-3). So perhaps that remnants of the old g-galaxy that originated our Milky Way can be responsible too for a higher metal abundance in the direction of the galactic plane. End July 2004]
Observations have shown that the greater the angular momentum of a spiral galaxy the more flattened the galaxy8, which is easy to understand with a central universal engine causing the momentum and directing the shape of a galaxy.
The stronger the universal engine the more gas is sucked up from far away. So on average bigger galaxies will have stronger universal engines (also depending on the amount of hydrogen available and competition by other universal engines), which have stronger momentum and which will thus flatten the galaxy more.
[February 13 2006: New Chandra observations of spiral galaxy NGC 5746 have revealed a large halo of hot gas surrounding the optical disk of the galaxy. This halo extends for more than 60,000 light years, but the galaxy itself doesn't seem to show any sign of active star formation. Therefore the researchers think it is not likely that the galaxy has spit out the gas. Big bang researchers think that the hot gas is probably from the gradual inflow of intergalactic material400.
Population II stars and hydrogen clouds may go to the center, thus creating the (spherical) nuclear bulge of the galaxy with Population II stars (a part of the Population II stars may have become Population I stars by sucking in dust) and newly created O and OB stars that may originate from old cooled down white dwarfs that have assembled new hydrogen, thus becoming luminous stars again (6-2).
[May 2003: Much of the shape of our Galaxy, like the nuclear bulge, may have been determined long ago by old dark matter, i.e. old galaxies, that may have formed the nuclear bulge (4-1, 4-3). This dark matter, i.e. dark matter objects, then may have lighted up as new stars by new infalling hydrogen.
For several years astronomers have noted that the masses of (supermassive) “black holes” are directly proportional to the sizes of central bulges of stars in galaxies. This led to the speculation that formation of the black holes and of the stars are somehow related to each other. Scientists hypothesized that gas being drawn towards a galaxy's central “black hole” is the same gas from which large numbers of stars are forming40. This is, of course, exactly what this webpage is about, but then with a universal engine instead of a (supermassive) “black hole”.
Studies of more-nearby galaxies supported such speculation, but the question remained whether the idea could be applied to galaxies very far away. New observation gives strong support to the idea that large numbers of stars are forming in far away galaxies at the same time that their central “black holes” are pulling in additional mass40.
[May 2004: One of the for conventional scientists most remarkable discoveries of recent years has been the demonstration that every large galaxy harbors, at its core, a (what they think is a) black hole. The mass of the central black holes is very closely related to the properties of the galaxy in which it is embedded, which implies for big bang astronomers that the formation of the black hole is intimately entwined with that of its galaxy, but the nature of this link remains obscure for them98.
In recent years a number of studies have revealed that the innermost centers of giant elliptical galaxies - the inner 1 percent - have no stars. Big bang astronomers suspect that massive black holes are responsible for this, gravitationally hurling away any stars that venture too near and devouring the stars that come in really close. This scouring phenomenon then would tend to dim the centers of giant elliptical galaxies, which runs counter to the trend that bigger galaxies tend to have brighter centers103.
[February 26 2005: Giant elliptical galaxies often have or have had AGNs in their centers. Such AGNs can blow away gas from the center which then may account for the absence of stars in the innermost centers of giant elliptical galaxies283. End February 26 2005]
With the concept of an elliptical turning into a spiral galaxy it may be explained why the halo of our Galaxy turns around much slower than the spiral arms of our Galaxy: being further away from the core (and with mass that comes from much further away out of intergalactic space) the halo of a spiral needs more time to adjust its rotation rate to the rotation of the universal engine in the core of the nuclear bulge of a spiral than the spiral arms of a spiral.
[May 2004: Measurements by astronomers have given a strong indication that the halos of galaxies are flattened, like a rubber ball compressed to half its size88.
[June 2004: When a cluster of galaxies can turn into a dark g-galaxy (4-1) which can shrink and eventually attract hydrogen from intergalactic space and thus originate an elliptical galaxy than such g-galaxies are likely to flatten like ellipticals may flatten into spirals as described here. Such flattened g-galaxies then may have a lot of clashing dark matter objects and thus produce large amounts of dust in a disk (i.e. the flattened old shrunken g-galaxy) within an elliptical galaxy.
[July 2004: When an old g-galaxy can be inside an elliptical galaxy in the form of disk of dust then one may expect that an old g-galaxy in the form of a disk may be able to attract gas. Ohio University astronomers have discovered the largest disk of hot, X-ray emitting gas ever observed in the universe: 90,000 light years in diameter (December 2002). The disk, spins through a distant galaxy, NGC 1700, a young elliptical galaxy about 160 million light years from Earth. Giant in size and about 8 million degrees in temperature, the disk was an unexpected find221.
[January 30 2008: Astronomers have found brilliant blue clusters of stars. The clusters weigh tens of thousands of solar masses. They are more massive than most open clusters found inside galaxies but a fraction of the mass of globular star clusters that orbit a galaxy. The mystery is that the blue star clusters are found along a wispy bridge of gas strung among three colliding galaxies, M81 (spiral galaxy), M82 (spiral galaxy), and NGC 3077, residing approximately 12 million light-years from Earth. This is not the place astronomers expect to find star clusters: in intergalactic space. Blue star clusters like this have never been seen in detail before in such sparse locations, the researchers say473.
[January 2005: When clouds of gas or smaller galaxies approach a big galaxy from far away then this approach may be likely to happen by orbiting the major galaxy in ever smaller circles. The major galaxy rotates and so the smaller objects, like gas clouds/smaller galaxies, may be likely to end up orbiting in a plane that is perpendicular to the rotation axis of the major galaxy (the same may be the case with solar system formation, 7-1, as well as cluster formation, 4-4). This too may be part of the explanation of disk formation within spiral galaxies. End January 2005]
Hydrogen (clouds) may flow faster than dust towards the universal engine (4-3) and therefore we may find more dust in spirals than in ellipticals, more dust in Sb spirals than in Sa spirals, more dust in Sc spirals than in Sb spirals. But, of course, the reason for higher dust content in those galaxies will also be: supernovae and more clashing of (more concentrated) dark matter objects in a spiral galaxy.
Nuclei in Sc-spirals are smaller than in Sa and Sb spirals8, which may be due to shrinking during Sa and Sb phases.
Spirals directly descending from universal engines and ellipticals without universal engines in its center
It may also be that spirals directly can descend from universal engines (5-3). [February 2004: It may also be that ellipticals can come to existence without a former galaxy in its center (3-2). (Galaxy formation is basically: an assemblage of dark matter objects or/and luminous stars attracting hydrogen; so the number of ways that can lead to galaxy formation can be quite endless.) End February 2004]
[June 2004: There is also the possibility that ellipticals can shrink and become the nuclear bulge of a spiral galaxy meanwhile cannibalizing smaller (elliptical) galaxies (as well as globular clusters, both coming in through the halo; both the Andromeda galaxy and our Milky Way have been observed to swallow smaller galaxies127,164) which become the arms of the galaxies. Arms of spirals often come in two, but so do smaller elliptical galaxies, see for instance the pairs in our Local Group. Barred spirals then may be explained by smaller ellipticals coming (more or less) perpendicular to the rotation of the disk of a (young) spiral galaxy. End June 2004]
[July 2004: A spiral galaxy called NGC 7331 - a virtual twin of our Milky Way - has a central bulge, which is outlined by a ring of actively forming stars. It also has swirling arms spin outward from the inner star-forming ring213.
Perhaps that the inner star-forming ring has been originated from the old elliptical galaxy (that preceded the spiral NGC 7331) and that the arms of NGC 7331 are formed by cannibalizing smaller galaxies.
When galaxies are cannibalized they probably will loose a lot of gas clouds that stream towards the central larger galaxy. Cannibalized galaxies then will have more darkened/not refuelled stars and thus contain more dark matter, which then may explain why (the arms of) spiral galaxies have more dark matter than elliptical galaxies (4-4).
Big bang astronomers think that the ring around the Milky Way galaxy discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey may be what's left of a collision between our galaxy and a smaller, dwarf galaxy219, which I guess can be very well the case indeed. Whether the arms/disk (not the ring around the Milky Way) of our Milky Way descend from an old elliptical galaxy that has been flattened or from cannibalizing smaller galaxies is something that remains to be sought out. Perhaps most likely both mechanisms can contribute to the understanding of galaxy formation in the Universe. End July 2004]
[March 31 2005: How much a star gets flattened may depend on the rotation of heavy metal cores inside stars, i.e. the mass and rotational speed of a heavy metal core may shape the stars gas that surrounds the core (7-1). The mass and rotation of the nuclear bulge of galaxies may shape galaxies. Perhaps that the mass and rotation of a galactic center may make a difference when it comes to wether a galaxy will turn into an elliptical or a spiral, or wether an elliptical will turn into a spiral or into an AGN. End March 31 2005]
Seyferts tend to be in close, binary galactic systems8 and also stars tend to be in binary/multiple systems as well as galaxies.
Astronomical objects tend to form binary systems (7-2), which may be due to astronomical systems being old objects, so they had time to form binaries.
[May 2003: "There are many examples of double cosmic objects, but the question why has not even be asked, much less an answer is attempted." Arp in Seeing Red29.
The Hubble Deep Field picture, a ten-day exposure obtained with the Wide-Field Camera-2 on the Hubble Space Telescope in December 1995, shows that 5% of all its objects are binary systems29, where for nearby galaxies the percentage of binary systems is 0.9%. With Deep Field objects being old (instead of young as thought with current big bang cosmology) this is easy to understand: old systems tend to be in binary systems. End May 2003]
[February 13 2006: Astronomers have long known that massive, bright stars, including stars like the sun, are most often found to be in multiple star systems. This fact led to the notion that most stars in the universe are multiples. However, more recent studies targeted at low-mass stars have found that these fainter objects rarely occur in multiple systems. Astronomers have known for some time that such low-mass stars, also known as red dwarfs or M stars, are considerably more abundant in space than high-mass stars. Among very massive stars, known as O- and B-type stars, 80 percent of the systems are thought to be multiple, but these very bright stars are exceedingly rare. Slightly more than half of all the fainter, sun-like stars are multiples. However, only about 25 percent of red dwarf stars have companions. Combined with the fact that about 85 percent of all stars that exist in the Milky Way are red dwarfs, the inescapable conclusion is that upwards of two-thirds of all star systems in the Galaxy consist of single, red dwarf stars399.
Our Galaxy plus the Andromeda galaxy is a binary system. Sagittarius B in the galactic nucleus of our Milky Way appears to be a binary system and this binary system (Sagittarius B) is part of a larger binary system with Sagittarius A.
Thus in the very far future our Galaxy may be in the center of a future galactic nucleus like Sagittarius A* may be an old galaxy in the center of the nucleus of our Milky Way. I think in this respect the similarities between our Local Group and the galactic nucleus of our Milky Way are striking.
With M31 and M33 as spiral galaxies with multiple galactic nuclei in their centers like in our galactic nucleus one may look at our Local Group as originating from a bigger cluster than the Local Group itself.
Big clusters like our Local Supercluster need more time to shrink to small sized g-galaxies and by doing so there is time for smaller clusters (within the big cluster) to become nonluminous, shrink, build up hydrogen, and become luminous again.
Our Local Group, with multiple nuclei in the centers of M31, M33 and the Milky Way, may be an example of an original bigger cluster in the Local Supercluster that shrunk, became a g-galaxy (of small g-galaxies: the multiple nuclei in M31, M33 and the Milky Way) that attracted hydrogen and thus M31, M33 and the Milky Way may have lighted up again as new born galaxies from old g-galaxies.
(Our Galaxy, M31 and M33, as well as the smaller galaxies in our Local Group, may become quasars in the future, 5-4.)
[June 2004: And the nuclei of the Milky Way, M31 and M33 once may have been quasars (5-1). End June 2004]
[May 8 2006: Two giant “black holes” are only about 24 light-years apart, and that's more than 100 times closer than any pair found before. The pair is in the center of a galaxy called 0402+379, some 750 million light-years from Earth. Astronomers presume that each of the supermassive objects was once at the core of a separate galaxy, then the two galaxies collided, leaving the objects orbiting each other. The objects orbit each other about once every 150,000 years417. I think the “black holes” (5-1) are shrunken galaxies or (perhaps rather) shrunken clusters of galaxies. Perhaps that in the very far future the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxy (with their satellite galaxies), the two largest galaxies of the Local Group, end up as two “black holes” too in a new galaxy. End May 8 2006]
Bigger clusters are part of superclusters which may be part of super-superclusters, but: a smaller cluster like our Local Group may have an older but originally bigger cluster in the hearts of M31, M33 and the Milky Way, i.e. the multiple galactic nuclei inside M31, M33 and the Milky Way.
[May 2003: Looking at galaxy/cluster maps reveals that also clusters may show the same binary systems: 2 smaller clusters orbiting each other versus one bigger cluster that orbits with the two smaller clusters in a larger binary system (the Virgo cluster may be an example of such a 2-to-1 system). This would only be logic if systems like our Milky Way versus M31/M33 and Sagittarius A versus Sagittarius B (with Sagittarius B consisting of 2 smaller systems) are common.
Thus it may be that there are always bigger clusters to be found which show the same binary systems: superclusters (the Coma supercluster may be an example of such a 2-to-1 system), supersuperclusters, etc. Then also AGNs may often be found to be part of such binary systems, that is if AGNs originate from universal engines as pointed out in 5-1.
I call the here described binary systems 2-to-1 systems. Our Galaxy and M31/M33 would thus be a 2-to-1 galaxy system, the Sagittarius A/B system a 2-to-1 nucleus system, the Virgo cluster a 2-to-1 cluster system and the Coma supercluster a 2-to-1 supercluster system.
Of course, if binaries are common, than the 2-to-1 systems may rather be 2-to-2 systems (double binaries) in which one of the 4 components has (almost) vanished somehow, perhaps “eaten up” by its companion. End May 2003]
If galaxies shrink they have intrinsic redshifts due to shrinking.
Arp reports on intrinsic redshifts of galaxies29. The largest galaxies in the center of nearby clusters may have the lowest redshift. As mentioned (4-3): the central large galaxies in clusters may shrink less fast because of gravitational shielding, thus (part of, see hereafter) their relative low redshift may be explained.
Arp also found that the excess (or: intrinsic) redshifts of the other galaxies in nearby clusters range from 50 to 300 km/s29. Those velocities are of the magnitude of our Sun orbiting the Galaxy. From Arp's book I calculate that the shrinking of our Galaxy may be in the order of 100 km/s. (Which would be a bit frightening, for 100 km/s would bring our Solar system to the center of our Galaxy in about a billion years, though the shrinking will probably become less closer to the center of a spiral galaxy.)
The Earth has a velocity of about 260 km/s with respect to the cosmic background radiation. Perhaps part of the 260 km/s can be due to shrinking of our Galaxy (and/or shrinking of our Local Supercluster) (4-2).
Arp found that in clusters the smaller galaxies have systematically higher redshifts than the larger galaxies. This may be because the smaller galaxies have a less strong universal engine (4-3, 4-4).
Stars have intrinsic redshift themselves too: bright blue stars show excess redshift29 (which easily can be explained with gravitational redshift, 6-2), which may account for (part of) the intrinsic redshift of galaxies too.
So when we measure the redshift of a galaxy we may have to think about:
Gas, dust and dark matter
Next to the production of hydrogen in the form of HII by radio loud activity dust (or at least: higher elements) may be produced as well by radio loud activity (5-2, 5-2). Thus like hydrogen dust/heavy elements too may be attracted (out of intergalactic space) to galaxies, universal engines and g-galaxies. Also clashing of dark matter objects may cause dust; clashing in galactic as well as in intergalactic space (this may cause rings of dust surrounding galaxies).
Not only dust, but also dark matter objects are attracted by universal engines. As pointed out in 4-1: there may be dark matter objects in all kind of magnitudes and concentrations everywhere in the universe. This may, for example, account for the globular clusters that are spinning around the disk of our Galaxy. Globular clusters may origin from old (small) heaps of (small, hence Population II) dark matter objects that have attracted hydrogen and started to “burn” hydrogen, thus becoming luminous, while keeping their original paths much stronger than the hydrogen flows, because the old dark massive objects will be less “directed” by the “gravitational grip” of our Galaxy (3-2), which may explain the different orbits of globular clusters relative to the mainstream orbits of stars in the arms of our Galaxy. (Though: the difference between globular clusters and the spiral arms of our Galaxy may be more likely to be predominantly due to: spiral arms being formed out of an old elliptical galaxy and globular clusters being old small galaxies that have been swallowed by the Milky Way, 4-4.)
High-velocity hydrogen clouds, nearly all exhibiting velocities of approach to our Galaxy, have been subjects of intense debate8. The gas moves faster (is attracted faster) than stars.
Dark matter (in large pieces, larger than dust which is also dark matter) may approach the galaxy even slower than dust and hence there may be a lot of dark matter in the halo of our Galaxy.
Dark matter objects in the halo and gas streaming through the halo to our Galaxy may provide a natural explanation to the current riddle why some young stars are found high up in the halo of our own Milky Way galaxy, far from the star-forming clouds in the main plane26.
Scientists have observed clouds of ionized gas around young, massive stars - like the HII regions in the Milky Way - in intracluster space, i.e. between clusters of galaxies26. Such star formation regions are very unusual in intracluster space for big bang astronomy. In an infinite universe model much dark matter as well as hydrogen floats in intracluster space. Thus star formation regions in intercluster space are easily explained in an infinite universe model.
Observations have shown little gas and dust in our halo8.
Gas and dust may be present in the halo in very low concentrations so that we can't detect it (yet), but the total amount may be huge.
In Sc spirals and irregulars the extent of the hydrogen in many cases is almost double of the optical size of the galaxy8. This may be observed because the concentrations of hydrogen could be observed, thanks to the high concentration of hydrogen.
My guess is that the extend of (low concentrated) hydrogen for many ellipticals and Sa and Sb spirals will turn out to be larger when observation techniques improve. Perhaps even much larger than the extend of hydrogen for Sc spirals and irregulars (of comparable mass magnitudes).
There may be much more gas in ellipticals as thought so far. The gas in spirals is much more concentrated in a disk halo and thus can be observed easier. [July 2004: Gas in ellipticals has been found88. End July 2004]
Hydrogen in intergalactic space is optically even more thin and thus may only be seen when it is concentrated enough, for instance in intergalactic space within a cluster. A (conventional) model for X-ray emission observations in clusters shows evidence of intergalactic (ionized hydrogen) gas in clusters, with the gas having a total mass that is 10 to 20 times greater than the mass of the stars in all the cluster galaxies8.
[June 2004: Right now it is thought that one-fifth of the optically invisible mass of a cluster is in the form of a diffuse very hot gas with a temperature of the order of several tens of millions of degrees, therefore clusters of galaxies produce powerful X-ray emission179. End June 2004]
[June 2004: Recently big bang astronomers have found important new evidence to support unexpectedly large-scale “galactic winds” which they consider to blow off of galaxies, altering their surroundings out to distances much farther than previously thought. Galactic winds are streams of charged particles and they are detected in both visible light and X-ray light on scales that are sometimes much larger than the galaxies themselves. The team examined the galactic winds surrounding 10 galaxies. Located between 20 and 900 million light years from Earth, the galaxies are in different galaxy clusters and none are in our Milky Way Galaxy's Local Group cluster. These galactic winds could be detected because collisions among the charged particles create electromagnetic energy emissions in the form of X rays, visible light and radio waves. These emissions are not uniform in the regions around the galaxies. Rather, they are clumpy filaments of emissions surrounding galaxies in irregular bubble-shaped regions out to at least 65,000 light years from the galaxy centers. They found that these winds have a very large zone of influence and probably a strong impact not only on the host galaxy but also on scales in excess of 65,000 light years, possibly well out into the intergalactic medium. The team thinks that the findings mean any comprehensive understanding of long-term galaxy evolution must take into account the flow of gaseous material out of, and back into, the galaxy. The team explained that such a return “rain” would contribute to the re-enrichment of the host galaxy itself and that the flow of warm gas back into galaxies is very important to understanding the rate at which new stars form. As for the implications to the Milky Way, the team thinks that the findings for these far away galaxies suggest our Galaxy has its own galactic wind that is creating large-scale bubbles of material around it. Previous findings for the Milky Way have shown direct evidence for a galactic-scale wind at a variety of wavelengths161.
[January 21 2006: Astronomers using ESA's XMM-Newton observatory have found very hot gaseous halos around a multitude of spiral galaxies similar to our Milky Way galaxy. These 'ghost-like' veils have been suspected for decades but remained elusive until now. The big bang astronomers think that the halo gas has been thrown out of the galaxies because of star formation.
[July 2004: Data from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite were used to identify about 50 clouds of gas, or fog banks, surrounding our galaxy in every direction. According to the team of researchers the warm clouds were almost certainly part of the Local Group of galaxies. The team thinks that it is most likely that the material of the fog banks is material left over from the galaxy formation process214.
There is no evidence so far for much gas between the clusters8.
[August 2004: Gas in clusters has long been observed. Big bang astronomers look at the gas in the Abell 2125 cluster as conspicuous for its lack of iron atoms249. The gas may have been produced by radio loud AGN activity (5-2) and finally may have streamed into the Abell 2125 cluster, thus having little iron atoms. End August 2004]
[February 2005: Chandra observations has showed two separate clouds of hot gas at distances from Earth of 150 million light years and 370 million light years. The X-ray data show that ions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon are present, and that the temperatures of the clouds are about 1 million degrees Celsius. Combining these data with observations at ultraviolet wavelengths enabled to estimate the thickness (about 2 million light years) of the intergalactic clouds of diffuse hot gas277.
The density distribution in the halo falls of as 1/r2 (r = distance to Galactic nucleus), which means that if you picture adding shells of matter to the halo, each shell has the same mass. So as far as the rotation curve (of our Galaxy, see Fig. 4-3-I) is flat, large amounts of mass are added to the Galaxy's total8.
This is what happens if dark matter (and dust and gas) is attracted from far away by the universal engine in the nucleus in our Galaxy and is approaching our Galaxy through the halo.
[July 2004: Though, now I think that dark matter in the halo of our Milky Way is distributed according to the (now old and blackened) stars of the elliptical our Milky Way once was (4-3). End July 2004]
Rotation curve of our Galaxy.
[May 2003: See also Mitchell70.
When today's conventional gravitation models are to be modified (3-2) than calculations about possible dark matter contents in the halo of our Galaxy may bring different results (4-1). End May 2003] [July 2004: Though, I have become more and more sure about the existence of dark matter in our halo because of its former elliptical state. Also more and more observational evidence points towards halos of dark matter surrounding galaxies. End July 2004]
Rotation curves for spiral galaxies like in Fig. 4-3-II show that Sa spirals have one peak of highest rotational velocity close to the nucleus where as Sb/Sc spirals have more peaks that tend to be further away from the nucleus and which have lower rotational velocities.
This may be because the universal engine in the core attracts and speeds up huge amounts of mass. Thus the peaks may become lower because the engine loses more and more energy to the mass it attracts. Thus the velocity-peak closest to the engine, closest to the nuclear bulge, may become lower when the spiral goes from Sa to Sb to Sc.
[February 2004: Also: the mass closer to the nucleus will attract and speed up mass further away from the nucleus, thus the mass further away from the nucleus slows down the mass closer to the nucleus. End February 2004]
Rotation curves for spiral galaxies.
The rotation curves of Sb and Sc galaxies show multiple peaks with accompanying valleys and the Sa galaxy shows one peak. Rotation velocities in general (may) slow down when galaxies go from Sa to Sb, Sc, etc.
[February 2004: One then may wonder where the energy of the momentum by the rotation in the nucleus and the momentum of the speeds of the stars remains. 1. There is always mass further away that is attracted (too). 2. Inertial forces by gravity (also) may play a role in this (see also hereafter). End February 2004]
Velocities of orbiting stars in general may go down when a galaxy goes from the Sa to the Sb, Sc, etc. phase because the rotation of the universal engine may be slowed down when it brings stars in the galaxy into rotation (7-1). And: inertial forces by gravity (3-2) may slow down the velocity of stars.
In the case of the sole peak of the Sa spiral in Fig. 4-3-II: stars are attracted by the Galactic nucleus and rotate at a certain distance with a certain rotational velocity (= Sa-peak) of the nucleus. Further away from the nucleus the rotational velocity may not have caught up (yet) with the Sa-peak and thus further away from the nucleus the rotation velocity may be slower.
What has happened if the spiral is older and in its Sb/Sc phase? The universal engine of the Sa galaxy may have lost energy to the stars/matter outside the nuclear bulge and thus the momentum of the engine may have become smaller. And: the first peak of the Sb/Sc galaxies may be lower because the stars/matter at that distance from the nuclei of the galaxies may have attracted other stars/matter that are further away, bringing those stars/matter to faster rotational velocities.
Between the peaks of the Sb/Sc phase in Fig. 4-3-II there may be lower rotational velocities (valley's) because where the engine in the nucleus speeds up the mass outside the nucleus, the rotation of the nucleus may be slowed down (for a while).
The moment where the line in Fig. 4-3-I starts to be horizontal (at 13 kpc) may say something about the age of our Galaxy (or the age of galaxies in general), because: the distance from the Galactic nucleus to the point where the line starts to go horizontal will be proportional to the time the Galactic nucleus “had its time” to influence rotational velocities of mass in the Galaxy in a certain way (by “peak-valley-formation”).
The more luminous a spiral galaxy the stronger its rotation (which goes for all spiral types), which is the Tully-Fisher relationship.
A stronger universal engine originates more and brighter stars with higher spatial density and hence the luminosity is higher (also because more and bigger dark matter objects are likely to surround/accompany a strong universal engine).
Current astronomy explains the Tully-Fisher relationship by: both luminosity and rotation of the spiral galaxy are determined by the mass of the spiral galaxy8. This does not make sense if one can not explain what causes the rotation rates of spirals nor what causes the mass/luminosity magnitudes of spirals.
Universal engines of all kind of mass magnitude and rotation speed embedded in the cores of spirals may explain why we see spiral galaxies with different rotation speeds. The ratio between the strength of a universal engine and the amount of hydrogen it has attracted will be important too in this respect.
Part 1 The expansion redshift paradigm
Part 2 The relativity paradigm
Part 3 The quantum mechanics and Newtonian gravity paradigms
Part 4 The big bang paradigm
Part 5 The black hole paradigm
Part 6 The neutron star and degenerate gas paradigms
Part 7 The star formation and solar system formation paradigms