THE INFINITE UNIVERSE (Part 6, Chapter 6-2)
© Eit Gaastra
CONTENTS of this website (bottom of this webpage)

Part 6 (chapters 6-1 and 6-2) presents a new pulsar model and a new white dwarf model.

[May 2003: My ideas about white dwarfs are completely new, so you won't find May 2003 additions in this chapter. End May 2003]
Degenerate gas
When a black hole does not exist (5-1) and a neutron star does not exist (6-1) because of new physics (with pushing gravity, 3-2, and without the theory of relativity, 2-1) then a degenerate gas explaining white dwarfs may be something that does not exist either. A white dwarf then may be a smaller version of a pulsar: a dark matter object with heavy elements, but then with less matter than a pulsar and so: no endothermic pulsating reaction occurs (6-1) (though variable white dwarfs may be an exception, 6-2).
One may wonder about the density of white dwarfs, which are supposed to be extremely high with the degenerate gas concept. The relationship between the mass and radius, and hence density, of a white dwarf is a theoretical concept, which has hardly been tested empirically due to the difficulty of making accurate measurements of mass and radius in such faint objects64.
Star formation
Even stars with very little heavy metal content in their outer regions may have a core with heavy elements (an old dark matter object) that originated the star (7-1). Population II stars may not originate from a gas/dust cloud only, they may need a (relatively small) dark matter object that triggers star formation.

This may even be much more the case with Population I stars. Population I stars burn more fiercely and are more blue, more hot. This may be because Population I stars originate by larger dark matter objects, which assemble hydrogen until they light up as a Population I star. An example of a dark matter object may be a white dwarf, often likely to be the remains of an old star: the star stopped shining because of hydrogen/helium depletion and cooled of as a white dwarf or collapsed as a red giant after which a white dwarf remained. At a certain moment such a white dwarf will be cooled down enough and then hydrogen/helium won't be kept at a distance any longer by radiation pressure, thus the white (then blackened) dwarf may start assembling hydrogen again until it lights up as a Population I star. [July 2004: Cooled down red dwarfs may rather be the dark matter objects that trigger Population I star formation. End July 2004]

Right know white dwarfs are seen as the product of collapsing red giants. Such collapsing red giants produce bipolar outflows (a process which is poorly understood). Star formation produces bipolar outflows (YSOs) too (though, perhaps only the bigger dark matter objects produce YSOs; and perhaps YSOs are only produced in clouds with relatively strong concentrated gas, i.e. stars formed by a relative long period of gas assembling may light up without an YSO).

Dark matter objects may cause the bipolar outflows of YSOs.
Perhaps that larger dark matter objects can attract gas and produce white dwarfs the same way as stars are formed, i.e. (some of) the bipolar outflows which now are thought to be a collapsing red giant may be some kind of YSO.

I also wonder whether small stars with very heavy cores can still produce enough gravitational force to “burn” hydrogen or helium. The “burning” of hydrogen/helium in such stars, i.e. white dwarfs, then takes place at a closer distance from the surface (than in normal stars) and hence the surface of such small stars may be hot relative to other (bigger but colder) stars (with a relatively small heavy element core).
Also: if white dwarfs are not balls of degenerate gas with extremely high density, then the white dwarfs have much bigger surfaces and may cool down faster (too fast for conventional science) then expected so far. Thus perhaps nuclear fusion processes in white dwarfs may be something to consider (5-1).
[February 2004: I more and more think that white dwarfs may (often) be stars with a relatively large heavy metal core surrounded by a relatively small coat of gas in which nuclear fusion is going on. End February 2004]
[May 2004: In the nearest globular star clusters, called NGC 6397, three faint blue stars can be seen near the center of the cluster83. They may be examples of (old almost burned-out) stars with a heavy metal core surrounded by a relatively small coat of gas in which nuclear fusion is going on. End May 2004]

In 5-1 it is explained that, in a way, AGNs may be big balls of many dark matter objects, like white dwarfs (5-1). One may have to consider if it is possible that the “big balls” in AGNs are filled with many dark matter objects, like white dwarfs, glowing by gravitational contraction (5-1) or that the “big balls” in AGNs are filled with massive dark matter objects, like white dwarfs, glowing by nuclear fusion (5-1).
[February 2004: If the compact sources of AGNs are “big balls” with very much old stars (or rather: old dark matter objects with new gas) then it may be likely that those stars have big heavy metal cores surrounded by a relatively small coat of gas, i.e. then it may be likely that such “big balls” contain many white dwarfs. End February 2004]
[May 2004: If dark matter objects can glow by gravitational contraction then this may be a way too to explain the existence of white dwarfs (6-1). Glowing by gravitational contraction may also explain the helium DB gab (6-2). End May 2004]

White dwarfs
Thus white dwarfs may be dark matter objects (with or without gas). This would explain the rotation problem of white dwarfs: because conventional science sees white dwarfs as the remnants of red giants that have collapsed white dwarfs should all have high rotation rates. But they don't. Some white dwarfs have slow rotation rates, too slow according to conventional science, but this problem is solved if a star does not have to collapse in order to become a white dwarf, it just may stop burning hydrogen and then cool off as a white dwarf. Some white dwarfs may then be the remaining dark heavy element core, explaining the high density of the white dwarf.
So perhaps that white dwarfs with slow rotation rates descend from (normal) stars (without a collapse) where white dwarfs with fast rotation rates descend from red giants (with a collapse).
Whether or not a star becomes a red giant that will collapse may depend on the heavy element core. When the core is relatively big then the stars radiation pressure may be too small relative to the gravitational pull by the core to bring the star to the red giant phase.
[February 2004: Right now red giants are thought to be “blown up stars”, i.e. the outer regions of the red giant have been “blown away” from the core by radiation pressure. But perhaps that a red giant can come to existence by hydrogen coming from out of interstellar space and surrounding a certain star, i.e. hydrogen attracted to the star by gravity but being kept at a certain distance at the same time by radiation pressure of the (central) star (see also my explanation of BLRs in AGNs, 5-1). End February 2004]

[July 2004: The star V838 Monocerotis could be the coolest supergiant ever observed according to new observations by a team of researchers from Keele University and the Gemini Observatory. The star's dim appearance after an episode of rapid expansion is due to its exceptionally low temperature and not a concealing veil of dust as previously thought. A team of big bang astronomers has been monitoring V838 Monocerotis with the United Kingdom Infrared telescope (UKIRT), since an Australian amateur astronomer, Nicholas J. Brown, found it in the throes of an outburst of light on 6 January 2002. This marked the start of an extraordinary change to the star over a remarkably short time. Initially a normal-looking star, V838 Mon expanded into a cool supergiant in just a few months. The transformation was marked by three episodes of brightening, followed by a dramatic fade. At the time, a logical explanation for the fading seemed to be obscuring dust that could have formed from material expelled when the star puffed up. But a spectrum obtained in March 2002 was characteristic of a typical cool supergiant star with a surface temperature around 4000 Kelvin211.
Perhaps that the episodes of brightening were started up by a hydrogen/gas cloud falling towards the star as suggested above. Though, perhaps it is more likely that the team has witnessed the merging of two individual stars as they suggest211 (see also 7-1). Perhaps that red giants can come to existence (too) by the merging of stars (or the merging of stars with dark matter objects, or even the merging of multiple dark matter objects in a cloud of gas). End July 2004]

If white dwarfs can assemble hydrogen again after cooling down enough (thus lightning up as a star again one day), then, when the white dwarf much later becomes a white dwarf again (after having been a star again), the rotation rate of the white dwarf may have slowed down very much, which may explain the slow rotation rate of some white dwarfs. Also: assembling hydrogen may bring hydrogen with a certain peculiar flow, which may slow down or speed up the rotation of the white dwarf/new to be born star.

Right now white dwarfs densities are calculated as extremely high. But this may be wrong. With new physics one gets different results. Especially the density versus gravitationally pull mentioned in 3-2 may be important in this respect: high density objects orbiting a giant star get attracted less by the giant star because of the high density.
For example: Sirius B orbits Sirius A at a close distance and with a high velocity. To stay in the small orbit Sirius B is calculated to have very much mass, but with formula's that don't work with point masses (3-2) one will get a lower amount of mass for the high density object Sirius B and thus Sirius B won't have such a conspicuous high mass/density as is calculated for Sirius B by current conventional science.

Helium DB gap
Next to slow rotation another big problem with respect to white dwarfs is the helium DB gap from 30,000 to 45,000 K.
With stars having a different chemical composition than their outer region (7-1, also advocated by Manuel41), or: if (about) all stars have an old dark matter (object) core, one gets different star features.
Little stars (with very heavy cores) may burn fiercely until their core is about to become without gasses after which the stars stop burning hydrogen and/or helium. So: white dwarfs may originate without the collapse of a star (as thought right now in conventional science).
And: with a big heavy element core stars may/will consist of stratified layers because of gravitational pull (6-2).

Thus one can get stars stopping fusion reactions and then cooling off without a collapse. This then may happen within a certain range of star-magnitudes, which may originate white dwarfs with hydrogen layers cooling off from 120,000 K to temperatures well below 10,000 K. Stars may blow away their hydrogen layer by radiation pressure which then may produce helium white DB dwarfs beneath 30,000 K. Perhaps not above 30,000 K because stars with higher temperatures may have bigger heavy element cores that produce stronger gravitational pull which then prevents hydrogen to be blown away by radiation pressure (6-2).

The bigger stars without a big heavy element core relative to the gas surrounding the core (6-2) may show a different way of white dwarf formation. Those stars may indeed become red giants that have been “blown up” by radiation pressure to big spheres. At a certain moment those stars may start to collapse because of diminished radiation pressure because of exhaustion of a certain gas (helium) that is being fused into higher elements (as is thought right now).
When those big stars have a compact heavy element core inside then the interior of the star may happen to exist in “pure” layers by gravitational pull: the helium layer has hardly any hydrogen and a hydrogen layer occupies the more outer regions of the star. (When the core of a red giant is capable of producing stratified layers then later this core, being called a white dwarf by then, is, of course, capable of producing stratified layers as well. A “degenerate gas density” may not be necessary to produce stratified layers in a white dwarf or stars. Again: white dwarfs may be normal stars (too, next to hot heavy element cores cooling down) that fuse elements; they are white dwarfs then because their hydrogen/helium layers are relatively thin and their heavy element cores are relatively big.)

When the red giant collapses the outer regions may be blown outwards into interstellar space while the inner helium layer shows up “naked”, i.e. without hydrogen, which may explain the hotter DO helium white dwarfs. Those DO stars may have a high density and high mass and high (higher than 45,000 K) temperature (and a helium-layer), otherwise they wouldn't have become red giants (but instead have gone in a quiet way to a colder DA or DB white dwarfs, beneath 30,000 K in the DB/helium case, as mentioned above).

Thus with certain masses, temperatures and helium-layers hot DO helium white dwarfs may start to cool down. From a certain moment/temperature the huge and massive hot heavy element core surrounded with a helium layer may attract hydrogen again because of very strong gravitational pull. Thus a hydrogen layer may be formed, surrounding the helium layer. Perhaps 45,000 K is the lowest DO temperature in this respect, beneath that temperature a hydrogen layer may have established itself. Thus DO stars may turn themselves into DA stars. (The radiation pressure at 45,000 K and higher temperatures is strong, but also the gravitational force from the massive dark matter core in the white dwarf is strong.)
This may be a way to explain the helium DB gap from 30,000 to 45,000 K. One may wonder then about the presence of hydrogen in the surrounding space, but if hydrogen is thrown out by the collapse of the red giant then (part of) this hydrogen may be attracted (by gravity) again by the white dwarf immediately after it was thrown out.

Another explanation may concern the above mentioned possibility that white dwarfs can fuse hydrogen/helium because of strong gravitational forces by the heavy element core. Perhaps the fusing of helium is only possible with certain cores that have enough mass/density and hence fuse at certain high temperatures with 45,000 as the minimum temperature. When the helium fusion stops the temperature may go down very fast. Perhaps the star may get a “pulsar quality” (6-1), i.e. elements higher than iron are formed, which cools down the white dwarf very fast. This pulsar quality, i.e. cooling down process, may be triggered by the collapse of the star after the fusion has stopped.

Perhaps that some white dwarfs are big enough to trigger more pulsations (6-1) after the collapse, which may explain the existence of ZZ Ceti stars.

Recently, a new class of pulsating subdwarf stars is discovered65. Observations of hot objects in the Edinburgh-Cape blue survey have revealed a new class of object comprising a hot pulsating subdwarf in a binary with a F or G companion. The origin of subdwarfs is a mystery. It is thought that they could provide a possible route to the white dwarf sequence. These new discoveries appear to be multiperiodic pulsators.
Perhaps that different fusion processes, like a pulsar mechanism (6-1), in such (massive heavy element core) substars can cause the stars to be variable.
Perhaps that (some) variable white dwarfs may be progenitors of (some kind of) pulsars (6-1).
[January 30 2008: Big bang astronomers have found behavior like a pulsar in a white dwarf. At least one white dwarf, known as AE Aquarii, emits pulses of high-energy (hard) X-rays. It is the first time such pulsar-like behavior has ever been observed in a white dwarf. The team was not looking for pulsar-like behavior in a white dwarf, but after analyzing the data, they realized that the white dwarf delivers a hard X-ray every 33 seconds, much to their surprise471. White dwarfs can turn into pulsars and vice versa when you have a pulsar model and white dwarf model as described on this website. It therefore may be normal that some white dwarfs show pulsar-qualities. End January 30 2008]

Above 15,000 K, 15% of the white dwarfs are non-DA, below 15,000 K, half are non-DA. This may happen if also small low mass stars can become white dwarfs: those white dwarfs, descending from small stars, will have low temperatures, and: they may have lost easily their outer hydrogen layer by radiation pressure because of gravity forces upon the hydrogen being relatively small (because small stars have small heavy metal cores).

[April 2004: When you have pulsar and white dwarf concepts as described on this website then you will have intermediate heavy element cores that glow by gravitational contraction but don't have an endothermic (pulsar) reaction (yet or not anymore). Such glowing may cause certain white dwarfs to become very hot. At a certain (high) temperature an endothermic reaction will start and this temperature may bring the maximum temperature for white dwarfs. Glowing by gravitational contraction may start up from a certain temperature, for instance 40,000 K for DO helium white dwarfs, which may be crucial for explaining the helium DB gab. End April 2004]

Intrinsic redshift of bright blue stars
Bright blue stars show excess redshift, the so-called K effect29. Through many decades many astronomers measured that O and OB stars show excess redshifts in the order of 20 - 30 km/s29.
Trumpler29 thought he could explain the excess redshift with gravitational redshift, but when he calculated the gravity at the surface of these stars he found it was to weak.

[October 2003: Half a century ago Finlay-Freundlich suggested that the K effect may be due to a tired light concept: photon-photon interaction76. End October 2003]

As mentioned above: we may have to look totally different at stars when their interior has a huge core of heavy elements in it (also professor Manuel thinks that the outer regions of stars are not representative for the interiors of the stars41, he argues that our Sun has a big iron core, 7-1). For instance: perhaps O and OB stars can only originate when a huge (cooled down) white dwarf, or a dark matter object, attracts huge amounts of hydrogen, for instance a (blackened) white dwarf of the size of Sirius B, which may have a mass-magnitude as big as the mass of our Sun8, or even heavier (cooled down) white dwarfs or (merged) dark matter objects may originate the biggest stars, perhaps objects of Cygnus X-1 mass-magnitude (6-1).
Though there probably will be a limit, because heavy dark compact objects may not be so dark when they have a certain magnitude, because of heating by gravitational contraction, thus causing radiation pressure that blows away approaching gasses. But: a fast rotating ball of many (smaller) dark matter objects (which then won't be heated up by gravitational contraction) may attract hydrogen too, thus originating a very massive star. And also: above it was mentioned that certain hot helium white dwarfs may attract hydrogen because of their strong gravitational pull, despite the radiation pressure. (See also 7-1.)

Sirius B has an observed gravitational redshift of 90 km/s. One can imagine that a light wave leaving an O or OB star, which has a dark matter core the size of Sirius B at its center, but which too has a huge mantle of gas surrounding that core, will have a lower gravitational redshift than Sirius B, but the redshift may (still) be in the order of 20-30 km/s.
Measured gravitational redshifts of white dwarfs range from 20 to 90 km/s8.

Thus perhaps excess redshift of bright blue stars may be very easily explained when we leave the old (big bang) paradigm that the outer regions of stars represent their contents. The interiors of stars may be much different than thought so far. There may be layers of certain chemical composition, and there may be much more nuclear fusion processes going on at the same time, corresponding with different layers and thus different heat and pressure.

Red giants are observed to have different nuclear fusion processes going on in layers. Helium burning in a more-inward layer, hydrogen burning in a more-outward layer. This then is of course not surprising if red giants have relatively massive cores of heavy elements as mentioned above. And it makes one suspect that big stars (with big heavy element cores) have different fusion processes going on too.

Binary white dwarfs
Very few binary systems are observed to contain two white dwarfs. Perhaps this can be understood with pushing gravity (3-2). When a red giant collapses and sheds a gas mantle then the density of the object suddenly becomes a lot bigger which may cause the binary partner to lose gravitational “grip” which then may cause the white dwarf to leave the binary system. This may explain the high space velocities of white dwarfs (and pulsars, 6-1).
Big stars
Perhaps big stars may end as a white dwarf or a pulsar, depending on the heavy element core relative to the amount of surrounding gas. Stars with a relatively big heavy element core may not collapse, because the gravitational attraction is strong relative to the radiation pressure. Perhaps that (most of) those stars become white dwarfs without a (red giant type of) collapse. Right now such evolutions are not supposed to happen in astronomy, which causes the problem of high mass objects/white dwarfs. Such high mass objects/white dwarfs are suggested to originate from (coalesced) binary white dwarfs, “since they cannot be formed from single star evolution”66.
Perhaps thus that subdwarf O and B stars can end up as white dwarfs without an explosion.

Big stars with a relatively small heavy element core may explode after a collapse of the outward layers, because the gravitational attraction is less strong relative to the radiation pressure. Perhaps that (most of) those (big) starts become pulsars (where smaller “big stars” turn into white dwarfs without a collapse).
Though, of course, perhaps that the reason why stars (or heavy element cores) become white dwarfs or pulsars primarily is determined by the magnitude the heavy element core (rather than gas magnitude versus heavy element core magnitude), i.e. bigger cores become pulsars, smaller cores become white dwarfs.

Magnetic fields
Perhaps strong magnetic fields of some white dwarfs can be explained when white dwarfs can be bigger massive balls of heavy elements than thought so far.

Part 1 The expansion redshift paradigm
Part 2 The relativity paradigm
Part 3 The quantum mechanics and Newtonian gravity paradigms
Part 4 The big bang paradigm
Part 5 The black hole paradigm
Part 6 The neutron star and degenerate gas paradigms
Part 7 The star formation and solar system formation paradigms