CHAPTER 5-2: RADIO LOUD AGNs
Gamma ray burst (GRB) supernova connection
Explaining supernova jets with dark matter that has become so hot that certain nuclear reactions start to happen may lead to the understanding of radio loud activity of AGNs. So that's why I discuss supernovae here (and X-ray bursters).
Gamma ray bursts (GRBs) seem to be connected with supernovae47.
So far the answer to what originates supernovae is: a massive star exploding, after which a black hole or neutron star remains. The GRB gamma rays are explained with relativistic shockwaves travelling at speeds nearly the speed of light. This may be very true indeed, but I like to suggest another mechanism here.
In the case of novae we seem to be dealing with a star that explodes “totally”, no jets appear to be formed, the star ejects mass in all directions.
The same may be the case with certain types of supernovae: no jets are formed, the exploding object goes off in all directions.
Recently (some) supernovae seem to have two jets escaping in opposite directions from the central object along the rotational axis of the central object47.
What happens when dark matter (like iron) gets compressed very heavily? Of course, I don't know, but: right now no one knows. For until now this couldn't happen. With Newtonian/relativistic gravity heavy objects become a black hole, which, as mentioned in 5-1, do not exist with pushing gravity. So right now hardly anything is known about what happens with very massive dark matter objects that contract very strongly by gravity.
This chapter contains some ideas that may explain astronomical objects/observations like: radio loud AGNs and supernovae (this chapter), pulsars (6-1) and white dwarfs (6-2).
If a star stops burning gasses and cools down it will, when cooled down enough (i.e. radiation pressure small enough) assemble gas until it starts burning gas again. Also white dwarfs (probably) will, after cooling down, assemble gas again and become luminous again (white dwarfs may mainly consist of heavy elements like iron instead of degenerate gas).
Thus white dwarfs finally may become very heavy dark matter objects. At a certain point the mass may become so huge that a certain critical value is reached: temperature and pressure inside the white dwarf (or star with heavy nucleus) may have become so high that a certain process (or processes) start. For instance: iron may “burn” into heavier elements; this will cool down the object and may originate pulsars (6-1).
The burning of heavy elements (higher than iron) into heavier elements may be something that already has started happening in our Sun (7-1), but it may also start much later, for instance in heavy white (variable) dwarfs or very heavy massive stars or pulsars.
Perhaps that at a certain moment (about) all heavy elements “have burnt away” to the highest possible element(s), which (probably) is uranium. Then gravitational contraction may not get cooled down anymore and thus pressure and temperature may reach a certain value where the uranium explodes like a atom bomb, which may cause a certain type of supernova.
Such a reaction produces a neutrino burst48. Neutrino bursts coming from a supernova8 are observed by Kamiokande and IMB49 for Supernova 1987A.
But also: such a reaction produces gamma rays. (The U.S.A. army found GRBs while looking for atom bomb tests. Perhaps they found exactly what they were looking for: (extragalactic) atom bombs, i.e. GRBs as described here with exploding uranium.)
Imagine a massive star that has stopped burning gas after which it collapses. It collapses until a certain process starts which ejects the outward mass layers of the star (so far I follow the supra-nova model explaining gamma ray bursts47).
As long as the outward mass layers of the star were close around the core of the star the core may have been gravitationally shielded (3-2) by the outward layers, while radiation pressure by gas/mass burning may have kept the outward layers of the star from collapsing.
The outward layers of the star are shed and the core is left behind and gets contracted by gravity. The core may have grown to a higher mass magnitude relative to the last time it was a cold dark matter object in space assembling new hydrogen. The last “star phase” will have added more heavy elements to the core. So now a heavier core suddenly (after the ejection of the outward mass layers) gets contracted by gravity (after the gravitational shielding by the outward layers has stopped). Perhaps that at a certain point such a core can contract so strong that a certain process is triggered that produces a jet of high-energy particles. According to the supranova model shockwaves within such a jet may produce the burst of X-ray and gamma rays that is observed to last only a few minutes. [June 2004: Both strong and weak gamma-ray bursts, along with X-ray flashes, which emit almost no gamma rays, seem to be different forms of the same cosmic process163. The on this webpage mentioned burst-mechanisms suggest dark matter objects of different magnitudes and different element-compositions producing bursts with different temperatures, which then may account for one type of mechanism producing bursts with different wave lengths. End June 2004]
[September 5 2005: Until the latest Swift gamma-ray burst discovery, scientists assumed a simple scenario of a single explosion followed by a graceful afterglow of the dying members. The new scenario of a blast followed by a series of powerful “hiccups” is particularly evident in a gamma-ray burst from May 2, 2005, named GRB 050502B. This burst lasted 17 seconds in the constellation Leo. About 500 seconds later, Swift detected a spike in X-ray light about 100 times brighter than anything seen before. Previously there had been hints of an “X-ray bump” between the burst and afterglow in previous gamma-ray bursts, coming a minute or so after the burst. Swift has seen more than one dozen clear cases of multiple explosions. Within big bang cosmology there are several theories to describe this newly discovered phenomenon and most point to the presence of a newborn black hole. “The newly formed black hole immediately gets to work,“ said Prof. Peter Meszaros of Penn State, head of the Swift theory team. “We aren't clear on the details yet, but it appears to be messy. Matter is falling into the black hole, which releases a great amount of energy. Other matter gets blasted away from the black hole and flies out into the interstellar medium.” Another theory within big bang cosmology is the jet of material shooting away from the dead star starts to fall back onto itself, creating shockwaves in the jet core that ram together blobs of gas and produce X-ray light351.
Perhaps that a dark matter object explodes, gives off a gamma-ray burst, falls back onto itself and then the same but smaller dark matter object produces X-ray bursts. In that case, as described above, the same type of mechanism may produce bursts with different wavelengths, i.e. gamma-ray and X-ray wavelengths. In the case of GRB 050502B the same object thus may produce bursts with different wavelengths in a very short time span with the same mechanism. End September 5 2005]
[June 13 2005: An international team of astronomers has found evidence that certain kinds of gamma-ray bursts, which are associated with Type 1C supernovae (also known as hypernovae or supranovae), could be caused when carbon/oxygen stars collapse. The most popular scenario is that a collapsing star generates two highly collimated beams or jets of particles and energy that flash outward from the poles. The particles and energy generate a shock wave when they hit gas and dust around the star, which in turn accelerates particles to energies at which they emit high-energy light: gamma rays and X-rays. The initial burst fades over a few seconds, but the resulting shock waves (the “afterglow”) can be visible to optical, radio and X-ray telescopes for days after the explosion.
Type Ic supernovae are expected to result from massive stars whose winds have shed their outer envelopes of hydrogen and often all their helium, or that have lost these outer layers to a binary companion. Only the core is left, composed of the elements produced by fusion in the star's center - mostly carbon and oxygen but other heavy elements as well, down to a solid iron center according to big bang astronomers. Their collapsar theory proposes that the solid iron sphere at the very core of the star collapses under gravity. As the iron and surrounding matter fall inward, the spin of the core increases, flattening the in-falling material into a disk that flows inward along the equator. The congestion of in-falling matter pushes some of it right back out along the path of least resistance - the two blowholes at either pole.
The spectra of some supernovae a year or so after its explosion should show emission lines of elements, such as oxygen, that are split, one shifted slightly to lower wavelengths and the other shifted to higher wavelengths. The two lines would come from opposite sides of the expanding disk around the equatorial region of the central remnant of the old exploded star, one Doppler shifted toward the red because it is moving away from us, the other blueshifted because it is moving toward us.
Researchers analyzed the spectra of supernova SN 2003jd, revealing that they exhibit split oxygen and magnesium emission lines exactly as would be expected if the collapsar model of gamma-ray production were correct. This was the first Type Ic supernova to show split oxygen lines337. End June 13 2005]
Perhaps another possible mechanism for a gamma ray burst can be: a total explosion (or jet) emits very high-temperature particles that cool down very quickly, thus causing gamma ray bursts (plus afterglow).
[May 16 2005: Hot particles cooling down quickly may also produce infrared and optical light. New data have shown that whatever is producing the gamma rays in gamma-ray bursts is also capable of producing optical and infrared light333. End May 16 2005]
[February 2004: When a star “burns” then photons by nucleosynthese also push matter to the very core of the star next to pushing the outward layers away from the core, so one may doubt the here suggested mechanism. Still, there may be a difference between pushing by gravity particles and pushing by photons, as mentioned in 5-1. And: gravity that pushes gas towards the core, thus bringing nucleosynthese, is directed to the core (see also 3-2) while photons produced by nucleosynthese are directed to all directions. Thus the core may be more compressed (by gravity) when it becomes “naked”. End February 2004]
Thus some massive stars may shed their (outward) mass layers two months prior to an explosion of the remaining core of the star and thus a gamma ray burst may follow two months after the star has ejected the outward mass layers (which is what is observed but not understood so far: a jet of high energy particles seems to interact with a supernova shell that was ejected two months earlier47).
Gamma ray bursts may come in two different ways: A. by jets that search their way out of the compact core via the poles, or: B. the core explodes “totally”.
Perhaps both ways are possible, depending on the rotation rate of the core. Stronger rotation may cause jets where lack of rotation may cause the object to be so spherical that it explodes “totally” (5-2, but also: jets may only be produced if the core is massive enough, perhaps as with radio loud activity of AGNs, 5-2).
[August 2004: Astronomers have identified a new class of cosmic explosions that are more powerful than supernovae but considerably weaker than most gamma-ray bursts. The discovery strongly suggests a continuum between the two previously-known classes of explosions247. Perhaps this hints towards a “total” explosion, i.e. when supernovae explode “totally”251. End August 2004]
When a star has collapsed then the rotation rate of the core may have become so strong that thus jets are produced, where in other supernovae (or novae) types a “total” explosion may be more likely.
Perhaps novae and smaller supernovae are slightly different, thus producing no jets. For instance: after a certain burning process stops in a star and radiation pressure is diminished the star contracts until a different process or different processes start: heavier (than helium) elements start burning up to iron very fast (within days/weeks/months), which may bring a “total” explosion/reaction (all around the object in a certain layer) rather than jets.
A supernova explosion may be “total”, i.e. the whole object explodes. Such an object may be a star, or a dark matter object with no gasses at all with other dark matter falling on the core, for instance: a darkened dwarf elliptical or darkened globular cluster falling into its central core (4-4, 5-2).
[June 13 2005: When in 1987 supernova 1987A blew up in the Large Magellanic Cloud, it was the closest supernova in over 300 years, and a great opportunity to study this rare occurrence close up. According to big bang astronomers a neutron star or black hole should have formed at the centre of the expanding ring of debris, but so far, nobody can find it338.
Perhaps the object that exploded in 1987 exploded “totally” as mentioned above. Perhaps that can be the reason why so far no object with neutron star or black hole features has been observed at the centre of the expanding ring of debris. End June 13 2005]
It does not really matter if it is uranium or something else that explodes, the point is: without the black hole concept one may get a certain point where a massive dark matter object explodes.
One thing may be important here with respect to the hereafter explained radio loud activity of AGNs: “total” supernova's, i.e. no jets, may occur only when the object is very compact and extremely sphere-shaped, i.e. little flattening at the poles by (strong) rotation.
3 things may be important for triggering a “total” explosion: enough matter (i.e. enough gravitational contraction), extra pressure by (gravitationally) infalling matter and not too much rotation by the core (i.e. not too much centrifugal force that makes the (thin/weak) poles of the core explode first, thus forming double sided jets).
(An AGN core that explodes “totally” instead off giving radio loud jets may cause ring galaxies, 4-4. Though it may not necessarily be an AGN that explodes, perhaps in normal galaxies matter can fall into a central core (as well).)
[July 20 2007: With amount and kind of mass, extra infalling (merging) matter and rotation, all kind of magnitudes of explosion may come to existence. This may explain why a new class of explosion recently was found: much fainter than a supernova and much brighter than a nova456. End July 20 2007]
[September 23 2005: If dark matter objects can explode and produce double sided jets then perhaps also Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) and the ejected outer layers from old red giants369 may be explained with exploding dark matter. That is if stars and red giants have dark matter cores as suggested in 7-1. End September 23 2005]
[December 23 2006: Big bang astronomers link long gamma-ray bursts with the explosive deaths of massive stars, so-called hypernovae. However, there are gamma-ray bursts that show no rebrightening due to a supernova. How this can be is a mystery. Big bang astronomers see it as a possibility that a massive black hole formed that did not allow any matter to escape. All the material that is usually ejected in a supernova explosion would then fall back and be swallowed. The astronomers see it as first conclusive evidence that such gamma-ray bursts most likely originate from the collision of compact objects: neutron stars or black holes455.
Perhaps a gamma-ray burst can be caused by two dark matter objects merging and then producing a gamma-ray burst by strong heating by gravity (or by an exothermic process because of elements lighter than iron fusing into heavier elements), which then is followed by cooling down because of an endothermic process fusing elements heavier than iron into heavier elements. This double process is discussed in 6-1 explaining a new pulsar-process. End December 23 2006]
Different types of supernovae may be explained with different types of matter that gravitationally contract. Two extremes may exist: A. dark matter compact cores with little surrounding gas (for instance: an extremely big dark matter object or a group of dark matter objects that falls into a central point/core); B. gas spheres with little dark matter (for instance: a massive star or a globular/open cluster falling into a central point/core).
A GRB (or a certain type of GRB) may be an Extreme A explosion two months after an Extreme B explosion.
Perhaps thus one may look at a (certain type) GRB as a “Type III” supernovae explosion (Extreme A two months after Extreme B), where Extreme B supernovae may be looked at as Type II supernovae. Smaller Extreme A supernovae may be looked at as Type Ia supernovae (see also 5-2).
Depending on the temperature and pressure in the object (prior to the supernova) different kind of end products may be emitted to space (in a jet or by a total explosion). Possible products are protons and electrons, thus supernovae may be a way of hydrogen production. Other products may be: iron, lead, magnesium, lithium and all other kind of elements.
Depending on the temperature and pressure one may get all kind of products, with certain rules. One rule may concern relatively low temperatures and pressures: the lower the temperature and pressure the heavier the end products (i.e. in the case smaller elements fuse into heavier elements, like iron). Another rule may concern relatively high temperatures and pressures: the higher the temperature and pressure the lighter the end products (i.e. in the case heavy elements, like uranium, break down into smaller elements).
Perhaps that certain types of supernovae are caused by lighter elements than iron fusing fast into higher elements (which would come closer to the current way of looking at supernovae).
Perhaps also that certain dark matter objects (falling into a central core) have no light elements that can fuse into elements closer to iron, i.e. the objects are basically made of iron and higher elements, but there is not enough mass to start an uranium breakdown reaction. Then the dark matter objects may just “rebound” after falling together to a very concentrated point with tremendous heat and pressure that will be released in the novae/supernovae. Such a rebound mechanism may lead to certain conclusions about supernovae, but perhaps also about novae and/or dwarf novae.
Perhaps (part of) the “rebounding” is done by gravity particles coming from the matter in the core and causing a repulsive force from inside out (3-2).
Such a rebound-mechanism may be a small chance, though, for iron and higher elements then may be more likely to start fusing into higher elements, which then would cool down the dark matter object (6-1).
[February 2004: Though, perhaps the contraction goes so fast that the object can't be cooled down fast enough, which makes it explode. End February 2004]
Perhaps that stars/objects need a certain minimum mass to become a supernovae/GRB. This may explain why there are fewer weak GRBs and why all Type Ia supernovaes have virtually the same luminosity, 5-2.
Observations of an optical component to the April 25, 1998, gamma ray burst (GRB980425) indicated that a special set of supernovae - the hypernova - might be a contributor. Scientists searched in the area where the burst had come from and in an arm of the spiral galaxy ESO 184-G82 they found a brilliant star that was not in previous images50.
Perhaps that the star is the (hot) remains of dark matter that exploded (for instance by dark matter objects coalescing into one (too) heavy object).
Perhaps that a “total” explosion, i.e. an explosion blasting outwards in all directions, can explain the very rapid fading of some GRBs51: very hot small particles produced by the explosion may cool off very quickly.
(Though perhaps jets can do the same thing: small hot particles blown out of an object, after which the object closes itself after which the dark object can not be observed.)
[October 24 2005: An international team of big bang astronomers has for the first time observed the visible light from a short gamma-ray burst. Using the 1.5m Danish telescope at La Silla (Chile), they showed that these short, intense bursts of gamma-ray emission most likely originate from the violent collision of two merging compact objects373.
The big bang astronomers think that the two merging objects ought to be neutron stars. However, perhaps the short GRBs rather can be explained by the merging of two dark matter objects. End October 24 2005]
Type Ia and Type II supernovae
Astronomers have identified two major types of supernovae: Type II, in which a massive star is supposed to explode; and Type Ia, in which a white dwarf star is supposed to explode because it has pulled too much material from a nearby companion star onto itself.
Type Ia supernovae occur in ellipticals as well as in spirals and are associated with stars roughly the mass of the Sun and are therefore a puzzle (for it is hard to see how a solar-mass star can detonate as violently as a supernovae8
). Type Ia supernovae have no hydrogen or helium lines in their optical spectra and hence may originate from dark matter coming to an explosion. Type Ia supernovae are expected to come from progenitors that are very uniform throughout the universe8
, which concentrated (old) dark matter is.
Type Ia supernovae glow as bright as five billion suns for a week. All Ia's have virtually the same luminosity--just as all 100-Watt light bulbs produce the same amount of light.
Type Ia supernovae may be caused by the collapse or/and detonation of dark matter objects. For instance: a very old globular or open cluster which has darkened to a group of dark matter objects with no or hardly gas left that coalesces. Or: a pulsar “runs out of fuel” (6-1). Concentrated dark matter that does not rotate very strongly may have a critical mass, beyond which it explodes, which may make all Ia's having virtually the same luminosity.
[May 2004: Rotation (not very strong, so enough gravitational contraction) of the dark matter may be the reason why Type Ia supernovae do not explode in a perfectly spherical manner. Researchers have been able to show that at peak brightness a Type Ia supernovae was slightly flattened, with one axis shorter by about 10 percent84. By a week later, however, the visible explosion was virtually spherical. As spherical symmetry begins to dominate, about a week after maximum, it's not because the supernova is changing shape, but because different layers of it are seen. Outer layers expanding at thousands of kilometers a second grow diffuse and become transparent, allowing the inner layers to become visible. When the supernova starts, the outer part is aspherical, but as we see lower down, the dense inner core is spherical84.
The inner core of a dark matter object will have more spherical layers of certain matter. When the very core of the supernovae explodes than the outer (more flattened by rotation) layers will show an aspherical supernovae, but later the more inward layers light up, which are more spherical. End May 2004]
Type II supernovae show strong hydrogen lines, big bang cosmologists think that Type II supernovae arise from evolved stars much more massive than our Sun (10-100 MSun
). They occur only in spirals8
. Perhaps darkened or almost darkened dwarf ellipticals or globular clusters (with still a lot of hydrogen) may end as Type II supernovae (too) (4-4
). Those dwarf ellipticals and globular clusters (that have been swallowed by a major galaxy) need time to shrink, and, especially: major galaxies must have the time to swallow them, which may be the reason why Type II supernovae only occur in (old) spiral galaxies (with ellipticals being the progenitors of spirals, 4-3
Type II supernovae are more aspherical than Type Ia supernovae84
. A lot of gas (hydrogen) around an exploding dark matter object may be the reason why. A mantle of light elements like hydrogen will be more flattened than the outer layers of a dark matter object.
Perhaps that Type II supernovae can come to existence if two or more stars coalesce or when a star and one or more dark matter objects coalesce. This coalescence then would bring the cores of the multiple objects together, thus many very heavy elements (like uranium) may be brought together, which may bring the heavy element content of the new core above a certain limit (for instance the Type Ia limit, if
Type Ia explosions are caused by dark matter objects growing beyond a critical mass limit as mentioned above). In that case Type Ia and Type II supernovae may share the same explosion mechanism, one without a hydrogen layer (Type Ia) and one with a hydrogen layer (Type II). Coalescence of multiple objects is likely to happen in the arms of spirals where Type II supernovae occur. Coalescence may also explain why Type II supernovae are more aspherical (the new formed object explodes before it has become spherical).
There has been reports about a star coalescing with (3) dark matter objects, which was suggested to bring explosions117
Objects that produce Type Ia supernovae may be smaller than objects producing Type II supernovae because of gravitational shielding by hydrogen layers in objects that can produce Type II supernovae (3-2
). End May 2004]
Using the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope in Chile, big bang researchers determined that supernova 2002ic exploded inside a flat, dense, clumpy disk of dust and gas. Supernova 2002ic is unusual because its spectrum otherwise resembles a typical Type Ia supernova but exhibits a strong hydrogen emission line128
. Perhaps this is an example of how Type I and Type II supernovae may not be totally strangers from one another and may share the same explosion mechanism. The supernova 2002ic exploding inside a flat, dense, clumpy disk of dust and gas may hint towards the coalescence of multiple objects triggering the explosion. End June 2004]
If Type II supernovae arise from massive stars then: it may take a lot of time for stars to become very big in the case such stars have become big by blackening, cooling down, assembling hydrogen, star phase, blackening, assembling hydrogen, star phase, blackening etc. (7-1)
One may then wonder about Type Ia supernovae occurring in both ellipticals and spirals.
Type Ia supernovae may be caused by (single) old dark matter objects or groups of old dark matter objects, both may be everywhere throughout the universe (4-1).
When (single) dark matter objects are sucked into a galaxy they may be contracted stronger by stronger flows of gravity particles (3-2) producing stronger gravitational contraction. Also: more gas/dust, which is much more concentrated in galaxies than in intergalactic space, will fall on the dark matter object. Hence the dark matter object may explode. When a group of dark matter objects is sucked into a galaxy and gets confronted with stronger flows of gravity particles then the orbiting velocities within the group may be stopped stronger (by inertial forces by gravity, 3-2) and the group objects is pushed stronger towards each other by gravity too. And: with more gas and dust in the galaxy the group of dark matter objects falls into a central point faster as well.
Hence Type Ia supernovae may occur in both spirals as well as ellipticals and not in intergalactic space. [July 2004: Though, with dark matter exploding, thus bringing a Type Ia supernova, one may expect to observe Type Ia supernovae too in shrunken dark galaxies or g-galaxies, i.e. (apparently) intergalactic space. End July 2004]
In conventional astronomy an assembled layer of helium on a neutron star burns to carbon at once, thus producing an X-ray burst52
. X-rays then are produced by high-energy particles (electrons, nuclei). I like to suggest another mechanism here.
Perhaps in X-ray bursters lighter elements than iron fuse into higher elements, like iron or elements lighter than iron (or (some) elements higher than iron as well). What happens then is: an X-ray burster contracts gravitationally until a reaction is triggered and elements are fused into higher elements (iron or lower than iron), which produces a burst of energy, which causes an explosion, which produces an X-ray burst. The explosion diminishes the pressure and thus the exothermic reaction stops. After the explosion/X-ray burst the X-ray burster contracts again, until the next reaction/explosion, etc.
Small dark matter pieces of 1010 K may act as black bodies sending out gamma rays for a very short time, which may, as mentioned above, cause gamma ray bursts. Small dark matter pieces of 107 - 108 K may act as black bodies sending out X-rays for a very short time.
A (stronger) explosion of hotter material results in smaller pieces, which may cause that we measure cool off periods of gamma ray bursts to be shorter than X-ray bursts. Also: reaching temperatures of 107 - 108 K may take not as much matter than reaching temperatures of 1010 K, and thus the explosions of X-rays may be less strong, which may explain why some X-ray bursts occur in regular intervals: the mass may fall back by gravity; while gamma ray burst-sources are rarely seen observed to burst more than once: the explosion is so strong that the exploded mass does not fall back (or only rarely falls back), plus: bigger (X-ray) pieces fall back sooner than smaller (gamma ray) pieces (which may degrade very quick, having temperatures above 1010 K, see hereafter).
Gamma ray bursts have frequencies from 50 to 106 keV. As mentioned in 5-1: 1010-1012 K may be a certain critical temperature range, above 1010-1012 K elements may degrade.
Hence if gamma ray bursts and X-ray bursts are caused by thermal blackbody radiation then it may be no surprise that gamma ray bursts correspond with blackbody effective temperatures above 1010 K (with an explosion that causes the object to change dramatically, hence the gamma burst won't be repeated) and X-ray bursts correspond with blackbody effective temperatures below 1010 K (which won't cause the object to change dramatically, and hence X-ray bursts are repeated).
[September 6 2006: Such a way of looking at gamma ray bursts and X-ray bursts would mean that X-ray bursts are smaller brothers of gamma ray bursts. A recent observation concerning a gamma ray/X-ray burst makes big bang astronomers think this way too. They think that the GRB-supernova connection to X-ray flashes and fainter supernovae may imply a common origin. The difference between the too would be made by the mass of the exploding object434. End September 6 2006]
[July 20 2007: Recently more observations were done that point towards a common origin where it comes to the GRB's, supernovae and X-ray bursters: gamma-ray bursts are often followed minutes to hours later by short-lived but powerful X-ray flares. The flares suggest that gamma-ray bursts central engines remain active long after the prompt emission.
Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) recently picked up an initial gamma-ray burst in the constellation Libra. Then, from about 70 to 200 seconds after the initial burst, the BAT and Swift's X-ray Telescope registered five flares. Each flare exhibited rapid and large-scale variability in intensity, but the overall energy steadily diminished from flare to flare. Moreover, the peak photon energy of each flare “softened” by progressing from gamma-rays to X-rays (from higher to lower energy). The prompt gamma-ray emission and the subsequent X-ray flares appear to form a continuously connected and evolving succession of events. This observation clearly showed a gradual evolution with time in the properties of the flares within the same GRB. However, in other GRBs there are typically only one or two flares that are bright enough to be studied in detail, making it hard to reach a similar conclusion457. End July 20 2007]
X-ray bursts can occur in regular intervals of a few hours or a few days, which may be plausible with the above described mechanism. Others fire off in rapid sequence, shooting off several thousand bursts in a day, which may be less plausible with the above described mechanism.
Perhaps there can be a transition area between an X-ray burster and a rapid pulsating X-ray source like Cygnus X-1 (6-1), perhaps an X-ray burster can change into an X-ray pulsar like Cygnus X-1. Thus an exothermic reaction of the X-ray burster may slowly change into an endothermic reaction of an X-ray pulsar like Cygnus X-1, which then would be logical: if the elements are changed into elements like iron an endothermic reaction may follow when the elements are processed into higher elements by gravitational contraction.
[February 2004: Or perhaps that all X-ray bursters have a pulsar mechanism as described in 6-1. End February 2004]
[January 8 2007: European Space Agency's XMM-Newton satellite has found a variable X-ray source in a globular cluster. They think this variable X-ray source shows evidence for the existence of a still-speculative new class of black holes called intermediate-mass black holes. When the object is a black hole indeed it is the first black hole found in a globular cluster446.
Perhaps one should rather think in terms of a large object that has a lot of heavy elements. The heavy elements may bring a variable X-ray source because of one of the above described mechanisms. End January 8 2007]
[June 2004: Low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) that are only twice as massive as the Sun can be up to 500,000 times more powerful. According to big bang astronomers LMXBs shine because material from the companion star spirals onto the black hole or neutron star and this material gives out X-rays as a result of being heated to over a million degrees202.
With dark matter objects with very heavy elements different reactions may occur. Because big bang cosmologists can only think about gas clouds that contract (thus giving stars that can't be enormous objects with very heavy elements) they have to take refuge to concepts like “material spiraling onto a black hole, travelling at almost the speed of light”. But this then would bring luminous disks around objects, which is not the case. The X-ray objects are spherical.
LMXBs can be persistently bright202. Perhaps that a very fast pulsar mechanism is at work or perhaps that big heavy metal objects can glow by strong gravitational contraction without heavy metals being processed into higher elements than iron (yet) or perhaps that certain pulsars have come to the end of their “fuel” and are heated by decay of heavy elements. End June 2004]
If X-ray bursts do not need as much mass as gamma ray bursts then this may be the reason that X-ray bursts are galactic: X-ray bursters are concentrated near the galactic center8.
There will be more very massive dark matter objects near the galactic center and thus also more dark matter objects may act as X-ray bursters. Very massive “dark” matter objects may originate by multiple dark objects merging into one dark matter object, but also by the formation of massive stars, i.e. stars originated by blackening, assembling hydrogen, star phase, blackening, assembling hydrogen, etc. Such dark matter objects are more likely to be found near the galactic center.
Also: closer to the galactic center there may be stronger gravitational contraction (3-2) and more gas and dust. This will fasten the merging of dark matter objects as well as the formation of massive stars in that region of the Galaxy, and makes very heavy dark matter objects more likely to be found there.
About ten bursters are found in globular clusters, about 30% of the total8. I wonder if those X-ray bursters are likely to be found in the center of the globular clusters, which may make dark matter objects (for instance dark matter in the form of an X-ray burster) more likely to be candidates that originate globular clusters (4-4).
If the X-ray bursters are at the centers of the globular clusters then such X-ray bursters may (probably) be the result of multiple old dark matter objects merging into one very massive “dark” matter object. For instance: the very old nucleus of a dwarf elliptical may have merged into one object, the X-ray burster, while other smaller dark matter objects (old stars of the old dwarf elliptical) once triggered the star formation of the globular cluster.
Pulsars have subpulses near the main pulses and I explain this with different reaction regions in the pulsar (6-1). An X-ray burster may have different reaction regions too, which may explain the smaller X-ray peaks next to the main X-ray peaks in burst-intervals of X-ray bursters. One then would expect “sub-X-ray peak movement” in X-ray bursters as there is subpulse movement in pulsars.
Extreme temperatures and pressures in AGN cores
Dark matter objects orbiting a central core of a (fast) rotating universal engine may slowly orbit with smaller and smaller orbits around the central core until the dark matter objects merge with the core to become one big compact object.
The new bigger core contracts by gravity, thus building up higher temperatures and pressures, but it also has a strong centrifugal force that makes the temperature and pressure less big.
Perhaps this can bring an enormous big but still growing compact super big core of heavy elements, which may have a hot inside with very high temperatures and high pressure, but which also may have an enormous thick surrounding mantle that can't be broken easily.
Thus an enormous amount of matter may finally come to a point where pressure and temperature inside are very high. The pressure and temperature may be cooled down by: elements higher than iron may be part of nuclear processes that turn them into even heavier elements. This kind of reactions will take energy (because the maximum binding energy per nucleon occurs at iron6, 6-1) and thus the building up of heat and pressure in the very big core of matter may be diminished.
Photons for instance (low energy photons) may be absorbed by elements (like iron) when those elements are processed into higher elements. Low energy photons can penetrate deeply into matter. Thus radiation may be recycled into matter (see also 6-1).
[Some scientists in geophysics speak about Earth expansion (see Kokus in Pushing Gravity5), which they consider to be the result of absorption of gravity particles by the Earth and thus the build-up of mass in the Earth by gravity particles, therefore the Earth expands, which makes the continents on Earth drift apart.
Perhaps the Earth expansion may be caused by absorption of low energy radiation (too) with the here mentioned fusion process, which perhaps takes place in the center of the Earth at a very slow rate .
Right now it is believed that heavier elements than iron are formed during supernovae.
Perhaps (as mentioned above) that during very strong contraction of (strong concentrated) dark matter heavy elements may be formed (as well) in AGNs or in pulsars (6-1): the dark matter has to get rid of energy and perhaps does so by making heavier elements than iron.
If on the other hand dark matter floats through intergalactic space for an extremely long time the opposite may happen: heavy elements decay and release energy. Perhaps this can be the reason why our Earth is hot inside, thus our Earth may have been smaller and colder (perhaps both mechanisms, decay and (some sort of) absorption, can be at work at the same time).]
The cooling down by fusion of heavy elements like iron will stop at a certain point when (about) all elements are converted into the highest element(s) (like uranium). From that moment temperature and pressure may go to extremely high values until a very powerful reaction (or reactions) starts to happen, for instance (enriched) uranium breaking down into smaller pieces as in an atom bomb.
This may cause extra pressure that is too much for the mantle surrounding the core and so the inside of the core may be poured out along the rotation axis of the core and thus radio loud activity may start with one or two jets.
Of course I don't know what kind of reaction(s) occur at such a moment, but I do know that elements heavier than iron can release energy breaking down to iron. Thus it may be that enormous amounts of energy are released during radio loud activity, so immense strong that very heavy elements break down (in the central AGN core) to (mostly) HII and electrons (that are poured out from the core). HII and electrons then may cause thermal bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation, thus accounting for (extended) radio (loud) emission. (See also 3-2 for hydrogen production in an infinite universe.)
[August 2004: Big bang astronomers (too) believe that the radio emission in radio loud activity is caused by electrons/charged particles (going very fast through a magnetic field)230.
Big bang astronomers think that black holes in the radio loud AGNs swallow gas and liberate enormous amounts of energy in the process. This energy drives very narrow outflows of gas at velocities close to the speed of light, the jets235. Big bang astronomers too think that the jets are made out of gas/electrons, but where they think the gas has been attracted and spit out again I think that in the central core of the radio loud AGN a process goes on that produces the gas and that this process may very well be the main hydrogen production mechanism in the Universe. End August 2004]
[October 16 2006: NASA and Italian scientists using the Swift spacecraft have for the first time determined what the radio loud particle jets streaming from AGNs are made of. According to the Swift team, these jets appear to be made of protons and electrons, solving a mystery as old as the discovery of jets themselves in the 1970s436. So perhaps radio loud AGN's are the hydrogen producers in an infinite universe indeed. End October 16 2006]
[February 2005: Other big bang astronomers speak only about electrons. They say that radio jets are formed when material falls into massive black holes. Magnetic fields around the black holes accelerate electrons to almost the speed of light. These electrons are then propelled out in narrow jets and radiate at radio frequencies because of their motion in the magnetic fields276. End February 2005]
[November 13 2006: Big bang astronomers have found giant radio arcs surrounding the galaxy cluster Abell 3376 using the Very Large Array. They say that the giant, radio-emitting arcs probably are the result of shock waves caused by violent collisions of smaller groups of galaxies within the cluster. Though they don't how they think that the collisions have transported energy into free electrons that cause the radio waves442.
The radio arcs rather may be the very old remnants (electrons and perhaps also protons) of an old giant radio loud burst by a quasar. End November 13 2006]
[July 11 2006: Within big bang cosmology there have been two competing theories of how emissions arise from the particles of radio-loud jets of quasars - the “Inverse-Compton” theory proposing that the emissions occur when jet particles scatter cosmic microwave background photons, and the “Synchrotron Radiation” theory postulating a separate population of extremely energetic electrons or protons that cause the high-energy emission. Recently the jet of the radio-loud quasar 3C273 was observed in infrared, visible light and X-rays. The combined data strongly suggest that ultra-energetic particles in the 3C273 jet are producing their light via synchrotron radiation. This evidence favoring the synchrotron model deepens the mystery of how radio-loud quasars produce the ultra-energetic particles that radiate at X-ray wavelengths, because it is hard for big bang astronomers to see how black holes can drive such fast jets425.
Things are easier explained when you forget about black holes and look at radio-loud quasars as big assemblages of old stars and galaxies that spit out protons and electrons under enormous pressure as described above. End July 11 2006]
[May 2004: In 6-1 I suggest a mechanism in pulsars that may function as a cooling down mechanism in the Universe: iron and elements higher than iron fusing into higher elements. Another cooling down mechanism may be: iron and elements lower than iron breaking down into protons and electrons (as here suggested with radio loud activity). The two mechanisms that produce heat in the Universe are the opposites: hydrogen and higher elements fusing into higher elements up to iron and very high elements like uranium breaking down into smaller elements up to iron. This way the Universe as a whole does not heat up nor does it cool down, therefore the overall temperature of the Universe may be balanced for a very simple reason. End May 2004]
Perhaps that only very much later HII and electrons (re)combine in such a magnitude that HI produces a strong HI 21-cm line (5-3). The HI 21-cm line has been detected in absorption in the spectra of a few radio-loud QSOs43.
[July 2004: One may wonder if it is possible that a very big core such as here described sometimes may not have a big enough “mantle” to prevent the object from exploding “totally”, i.e. no radio loud jets then would be seen but an eruption of material/gas from the center of a galaxy instead (with still the material poured out along the rotation axis). Such an eruption may have been observed. Chandra's X-ray image has been combined with Hubble's optical image to compose a stunning and revealing picture of the spiral galaxy NGC 3079. Towering filaments consisting of warm (about ten thousand degrees Celsius) and hot (about ten million degrees Celsius) gas blend to create a bright horseshoe-shaped feature near the center of this galaxy216. End July 2004]
[June 2004: A team of astronomers has detected the presence of intermediate-age and young stellar populations in the halo of the Centaurus A, the closest radio loud galaxy. The youngest stars appear to be aligned with the radio jet produced by the center of Centaurus A189.
This can be seen as evidence for hydrogen production by radio loud activity, i.e. when those young stars have gotten HII/electrons/HI from the radio loud jet by Centaurus A. End June 2004]
[July 2004: Also visible light from AGN jets have been observed and, but more recently, scientists using the orbiting observatory Chandra have discovered that X-ray emission from jets is also common. Big bang astronomers think that the X-rays come from electrons carrying large amounts of energy. Regions of a jet of Centaurus A that are emitting the most X-rays were found to be stationary. The interpretation the team put on this finding is that the stationary regions are where the jet is stalled when it encounters clouds of gas or peculiar stars. The X-ray emission would be produced by the powerful shock generated as the fast jet flow runs into the stationary material209.
They may be right, but I wonder whether are not the X-ray emission (too) may be caused by large dark matter objects (5-1) that have been fuelled with HII/electrons/HI from the jet by Centaurus A, which then may account for the X-rays to be stationary. End July 2004]
[June 2004: Also (relatively) small (compact) objects like X-ray bursters may produce (relatively small) radio jets by the same mechanism, i.e. heavy elements breaking down to HII and electrons. This may explain the observed radio jet of the X-ray burster Circinus X-1149. Such smaller radio jets can also be seen as a hydrogen production mechanism in the universe.
[July 24 2007: Recently the jet was observed again in X-rays by an international team of big bang astronomers. They measured that the jet is about 3 light years long. The astronomers think that the jet emanates from a neutron star that has a mere 10 kilometer radius. Measured on the scale of the object generating it, Circinus X-1 is very impressive for the astronomers. In terms of power, their neutron star seems to have the same efficiency as (what they call) black holes: "The fact that neutron stars are just as efficient in making jets, despite having shallower gravitational potential and none of the gimmicks that spinning black holes have, is an important new insight."459.
I think Circinus X-1 is not what big bang astronomers call a neutron star (6-1). The object may have a radius much larger than a mere 10 kilometer. It may have a mechanism inside that breaks down elements, causing an outburst of energy. A mechanism that ejects jets into the universe from its interior rather than having the big bang model of a (very) small neutron star attracting matter and then throwing this matter back into space. A mechanism that is also suggested by big bang astronomers when it comes to the radio loud activity of “black holes” (radio galaxies and radio loud quasars). End July 24 2007]
SS 433 is a binary star system within our Galaxy in the constellation Aquila about 16,000 light years away. Big bang astronomers think one of the two objects in the system to be a “black hole”, the object shoots off 2 jets at 175 million miles per hour, 26 percent of light speed. The team thinks that the high-speed jets in nearby SS 433 may be caused by the same mechanisms as the powerful outflows in AGNs. They determined the length of the X-ray-emitting portion of the jet (over one million miles, about five times the distance from the Earth to the Moon); the temperature range (dropping from about 100 million degrees Celsius to 10 million degrees farther out); the chemical abundances (iron, silicon, and more); and the jet opening angle (a base diameter of about 1,280 miles). Of the hundreds of jets observed in the radio and X-ray bands, this is the only one for which there is a solid statement that it contains atomic nuclei and for which it is sure to have internal temperature and density153.
Perhaps that jets from AGNs have atomic nuclei heavier than HII too. Though, jets from relatively small objects as with SS 443 may originate from less strong gravitational contraction and lower concentrations of (very) heavy elements and thus the process producing the jets may be generating less heat as well as that it takes place under less pressure. Therefore one may see iron and silicone in such relatively small jets, elements that may not be found (at least not in such concentrations) in the jets of AGNs.
[May 18 2007: Researchers have found that the “black hole” at the center of the NGC 4051 galaxy emits jets of chemical elements including carbon and oxygen451. End May 18 2007]
With the way of galaxy formation as described on this website, i.e. old galaxies becoming the centers of future galaxies, the center of the Milky Way is likely to have big “dark” matter objects with much very heavy elements. Jets coming from such objects may explain the observed radio filaments in the center of the Milky Way166. End June 2004]
[October 2003: Mitchell75 too has suggested that radio loud jets (from radio loud galaxies) may provide material for new stars/galaxies. End October 2003]
[March 25 2005: The very largest black holes reach a certain point and then grow no more, according to the best survey to date of black holes made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory300.
If so, then perhaps the upper limit is caused by radio loud activity. Perhaps that when the amount of mass within a compact source, or big ball, of an AGN reaches a certain limit the compact source will start radio loud activity. (Also radiation pressure from the compact source may bring an upper limit by keeping away gas and dust from the compact source. But if so, then what about dark matter objects moving to the compact source?) End March 25 2005]
Perhaps that in a supernovae elements break down to (a lot of) iron53, cobalt8 and/or nickel54 where during AGN radio loud activity the end products are mostly protons and electrons (because of the extremely high pressures and temperatures in AGNs).
Perhaps that the bursts that start radio loud activity (i.e. the moment hot energetic particles break through the thick mantle) can cause gamma ray bursts (5-2).
[October 2003: There has been some fuss about superluminal speeds of jets of radio loud AGNs. Right now science thinks that nothing can go faster than light, which is something that may be wrong (for instance in the case of gravity particles/gravitons, 3-1). Gravity particles may go faster than light, but it may be very hard for larger particles such as protons to go faster than light. If larger particles like protons go faster than light then there may be 2 ways in which this can happen. One is: supernovae. Two: radio loud jets. Perhaps the jets of radio loud AGNs can have speeds faster than light which then may explain superluminal speeds of the jets (some scientists suggest that there are no superluminal speeds because the jets are in the line of sight8 where others suggest that radio loud AGNs may be more nearby29). When an airplane breaks through the speed of sound there is a loud “sound bang”. Perhaps that if material breaks through the speed of light there is a loud “light bang”, perhaps in the form of a gamma burst. Perhaps such a light-bang-mechanism can explain certain types of gamma ray bursts. End October 2003]
[September 5 2006: Recent research concerning quasars and gamma ray bursts came up with something strange. If you look at a quasar, you will see a galaxy in front 25% of the time. But for gamma ray bursts, there is almost always an intervening galaxy. Even though they could be separated by billions of light years. The researchers have several explanations why there is always a galaxy between us, i.e. the observers, and the gamma ray burst. One of the explanations is that the gas has something to do with the gamma ray burst. The gas may have a different redshift because of a certain fast velocity of the gas. The researchers think it may be possible that the gamma ray bursts have actually spat out this gas during the explosion, at very high velocities so that it has a different velocity than the gamma ray burst itself, and that is the reason for the difference in redshift, and hence causing the researchers to say the gamma ray burst and the gas have difference distances. However, the counterargument to it, and it is a solid one the researchers say, is that in many cases, the researchers not only observed the gas, but also stars from the galaxy that must be hosting that gas. So not only would the gas have to be ejected, but a galaxy would have to be ejected by the gamma ray burst, and that starts to stretch the imagination of the big bang researchers. The researchers consider other explanations they have for their measurements also to be unlikely430.
If the jets of radio loud AGNs can have speeds faster than light (5-2) then protons and electrons may be spit out by the quasar travelling for very long time ahead of the photons of the (gamma ray) burst. So when the photons of the (gamma ray) burst finally catches up with the photons and electrons then by then gas and even stars may have been formed out of the photons and electrons. If so then the radio loud cloud should be directed to us. But perhaps that extremely massive objects can also explode “totally” (5-2) and perhaps such explosions bring what we call gamma ray bursts. End September 5 2006]
[February 2004: Recently a group of scientists78 looked at the higher-energy gamma-ray photons of a gamma-ray burst from 1994, named GRB941017. The scientists found that the higher-energy gamma-ray photons dominated the burst: They were at least three times more powerful on average than the lower-energy component yet, surprisingly, thousands of times more powerful after about 100 seconds. That is, while the flow of lower-energy photons hitting the satellite's detectors began to ease, the flow of higher-energy photons remained steady. The finding is inconsistent with the popular (conventional) “synchrotron shock model” describing most gamma-ray bursts. Perhaps GRB941017 can be explained with lower-energy photons caused by the (crushing of the) thick mantle and higher-energy gamma-ray photons caused by the hot material that broke through the mantle.
Hereafter it is argued that ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays may be caused by the start of radio loudness (5-2). Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (as well as high-energy electrons) being responsible for gamma-ray bursts is something that has been suggested by conventional scientists78. A delayed injection of ultrahigh-energy electrons would require a revision of the standard (conventional) burst model, but may easily be explained with the in this chapter described model of radio loud activity starting by high-energy electrons (and high-energy protons/HII) breaking through a thick mantle. End February 2004]
Radio activity thus may be something like the eruption of a volcano and thus it may not be surprising that the “fountains” of radio activity by radio galaxies are very thin where they come out of the center of radio galaxies and that they move outward with extremely high speeds.
(Perhaps that instead of electrons and/or HII dust can cause radio loud activity (too). In 5-1 it is argued that radio spectra of compact AGN sources may be caused by very cold dark matter objects. Perhaps that enormous dust clouds cooled down to very low temperatures may cause radio loud FR II lobes as well as radio loud FR I streams. I consider this as unlikely, though, because then the “dust jet” should be very hot when leaving the central source in radio galaxies.)
During a period of radio loud activity the very inner core of the central sources of radio galaxies may be likely to cool down, because of the release of energy by radio loud outflows.
A lot of iron is observed in the intergalactic gas in clusters.
Theoretical (conventional science) models of the emission of ionized iron lines require iron abundances (relative to hydrogen) about half that of the Sun8.
Iron in intergalactic gas in clusters may come from AGN-jets (too) (5-2, 5-2). Thus, the intergalactic iron may come from outside the cluster (too) and not (or at least less) by supernovae in the galaxies of the cluster, as conventional science thinks right now8.
[On Earth there is always a break down mechanism for biological entities when they die. Larger biological cells are broken down into smaller parts. Thus, the smaller parts, i.e. atoms and molecules, are used to build up life again. The overall energy source that feeds life on Earth is sunlight.
Something similar may happen on an atomic level. Heavy atoms are broken down into small atoms, i.e. hydrogen, which then produce new stars/sunlight. Both the hydrogen fusion process in our Sun and the (suggested) break down process in radio loud AGNs are “fed” by gravity particles, giving the energy.
One then wonders if a similar process goes on a level deeper, i.e. is something “feeding” processes producing gravity particles? If yes, then perhaps this may mean that there are smaller particles than gravity particles (3-2).]
Radio loud jets may basically consist of HII and electrons with small amounts of helium and heavy elements. Certain cosmic rays may be produced this way and thus (certain) cosmic rays may have a chemical composition close to the chemical composition of radio loud jets from AGNs (high-energy cosmic rays may be produced at the start of radio loudness, 5-2
). If (certain) cosmic rays are produced this way then this may solve the high energy problem of (some) cosmic rays.
[August 2004: Big bang astronomers have observed the hint of a possible connection between the arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays and locations on the sky of nearby dormant galaxies hosting quasar remnants241. Such quasar remnants may have been radio loud AGNs in the past. End August 2004]
It may also solve the problem with the abundance of so-called light-nuclei: lithium, beryllium, and boron, which are virtually absent in stellar atmospheres8. If such nuclei are produced by radio loud activity then light nuclei can be primary particles.
Right now the light nuclei problem is solved by the spallation mechanism: original heavy cosmic rays collide with interstellar matter and during such collisions the heavy nuclei break up into lighter ones8, which may, of course, solve the problem too.
(If the spallation mechanism is at work in the Universe then this may solve (part of) the hydrogen production question too: heavier nuclei then may break up into protons as well.) (The velocity of cosmic rays may be diminished by inertial forces by gravity particles (3-2, 5-3) (too).)
Right now the in conventional science suggested cosmic ray sources are: supernovae, supersupernovae (hypernovae), pulsars55 and AGNs49.
The big problem is explaining ultra high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), like 1020 eV iron nuclei or very fast protons. With the in this chapter described mechanisms concerning supernovae and AGN radio loud activity it may not be surprising that iron (having the maximum binding energy per nucleon) is very prominent in the ultra high-energy cosmic rays.
At the highest energies single protons carrying many Joules of energy have been detected, the most energetic particles ever found, but the mechanism that produces those particles is unknown56.
Radio loudness may produce such fast protons. Perhaps also the in 4-4 described way of ring galaxy formation.
Protons that get accelerated to high speeds are likely to generate a large associated flux of photo-produced pions, which decay to gamma rays and neutrinos49. This may explain gamma ray bursts and neutrino bursts in supernovae. It may also make gamma ray bursts produced at the start of radio loudness (5-2) more likely.
Cosmic ray electrons are likely to be primary particles8. Perhaps cosmic ray electrons can be produced by radio loud activity too as well as by supernovae (and perhaps by pulsars too, 6-1). Though it seems that electrons can't be of extragalactic origin55.