THE INFINITE UNIVERSE (Part 4, Chapter 4-4)
© Eit Gaastra
CONTENTS of this website (bottom of this webpage)
PART 4 THE BIG BANG PARADIGM
Part 4 (chapters 4-1 –› 4-4) presents an infinite universe as an alternative for big bang cosmology.
CHAPTER 4-4: GALAXY FORMATION 2
There may be 2 possible ways for dust to come into a galaxy:
A. inboard dust: dust/heavy elements produced by supernovae (in the galaxy) scattering dust in the galaxy; and: dust produced by dark matter objects clashing within the galaxy [January 2005: Big bang astronomers think that such a clashing has happened in the case of the nearby star Vega because of recent observations with NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope272. End January 2005] [April 1 2005: Astronomers using the giant Gemini South 8-metre telescope in Chile have spotted what seems to be a collision between two planet-sized objects orbiting the nearby star Beta Pictoris.312. End April 1 2005]
B. outboard dust: dust/heavy elements produced by radio loud activity of AGNs (5-2); dust produced by clashing of dark matter objects in intergalactic space; and: dust/heavy elements produced by supernovae and thrown out of galaxies and thus travelling through intergalactic/intercluster space. All outboard dust types then stream through intergalactic space until attracted by a universal engine (and/or the mass of the galaxy the universal engine is in), thus finally entering a galaxy.
[November 13 2006: Supernovae can't account for all the dust in the cosmos. Recently big bang astronomers were surprised to find that the globular cluster M15 contains very much dust while its stars contain very few metals. According to the big bang researchers the finding implies that the deaths of smaller, humbler stars may have supplied dust next to dust caused by supernovae441.
[August 2004: Astronomers have observed huge amounts of cold dust around galaxies237. Such dust may be an example of outboard dust. End August 2004]
[July 10 2006: Supernovae may cause inboard dust as well as outboard dust (when the dust is blown out of the galaxy by supernovae). For 40 years big bang astronomers have suspected that supernovae produce dust. Recently this seemed to be confirmed when big bang astronomers found a significant amount of heated dust in the remains of a massive star called supernova SN 2003gd. The big bang astronomers think that supernovae in the very early big bang universe have produced dust, and that this may be the reason why galaxies in the early big bang universe (700 million years after the big bang) were already filled with lots of dust420. Of course there are no problems with dust in high-z galaxies in a universe that is infinite in time and space. End July 10 2006]
[March 20 2006: Messier 82 is an irregular-shaped galaxy positioned on its side, as a diffuse bar of blue light. Infrared images showed a dust halo all around Messier 82, brighter than any seen around other galaxies. Astronomers don't understand why the dust clouds are not cone-shaped, which would have indicated that massive stars in the center of Messier 82 had sprayed the dust into space. Instead, they believe stars throughout the galaxy are sending off the dust into the halo409.
[June 2004: A fine example of dust in the Milky Way is Trifid Nebula. This nebula, also known as Messier 20 and NGC 6514, lies within our own Milky Way Galaxy about 9,000 light-years from Earth, in the constellation Sagittarius. Three huge intersecting dark lanes of interstellar dust are silhouetted against glowing gas and illuminated by starlight169.
Also galaxies embedded in dust may have gotten their dust surroundings by clashing dark mater objects from dark galaxies/g-galaxies that have come to orbit the central (luminous) galaxy and which too got mixed up by gravitational forces resulting in clashes between dark matter objects within the teared up dark galaxies/g-galaxies.
The unique capabilities of Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) provide a direct way of separating stars from warm dust. The Spitzer's infrared pictures revealed a big surprise: some of the galaxies (like NGC 5746) previously classified to be in the elliptical/lenticular class were found to have warm dust faintly emitting from spiral (dust) arms surrounding the luminous elliptical/lenticular galaxy. Seeing spiral arms in lenticular galaxies was totally unexpected for big bang astronomers165.
Interstellar dust has been found, but so far no intergalactic or outboard dust8. I think that there may be intergalactic dust, but not as strongly concentrated as in our spiral Galaxy. It may be optically too thin for current observation techniques. If outboard dust exists it probably gets concentrated when it is sucked up by galaxies or universal engines.
Outboard dust/heavy elements may explain why we don't see stars without any heavy element traces (no Population III stars). Heavy elements in Population II stars may originate from cosmic rays as well, thus explaining the absence of Population III stars; though cosmic rays may very well be produced by radio loudness and supernovae (5-2), which would bring us back to radio loudness and supernovae as the reasons why no Population III stars exist.
[June 2004: Messier 64 (M64) has a spectacular dark band of absorbing dust in front of the galaxy's bright nucleus. At first glance, M64 appears to be a fairly normal pinwheel-shaped spiral galaxy. As in the majority of galaxies, all of the stars in M64 are rotating in the same direction. However, detailed studies in the 1990's led to the remarkable discovery that the interstellar gas in the outer regions of M64 rotates in the opposite direction from the gas and stars in the inner regions. Active formation of new stars is occurring in the shear region where the oppositely rotating gases collide, are compressed, and contract. Big bang astronomers believe that the oppositely rotating gas arose when M64 absorbed a satellite galaxy that collided with it, perhaps more than one billion years ago. This small galaxy now is supposed to be almost completely destroyed, but signs of the collision are thought to persist in the backward motion of gas at the outer edge of M64143.
[May 2004: The distant galaxy, dubbed J1148+5251, contains a bright quasar. For big bang cosmologists the galaxy is seen as it was only 870 million years after the big bang, which they consider to have happened 13.7 billion years ago. J1148+5251 would have been among the first luminous objects in their big bang Universe. Big bang cosmologists discovered that there is much carbon monoxide gas in J1148+5251, which is very surprising for them87.
Also, within big bang cosmology the most popular theory for how big galaxies formed is that they were built up over long spans of time by multiple mergers of smaller galaxies. J1148+5215 is a massive galaxy and therefore it is very surprising for big bang cosmologists to see such a massive galaxy so early in their big bang Universe87.
[May 2004: Also 3 quasars with very large redshift (redshifts 5.78-6.28) which are thought to be at a distance of nearly 13 billion (big bang) light years are observed to contain large amounts of iron111. This suggests that the first stars formed as little as 200 million years after the big bang which is much earlier than previously thought by big bang astronomers. I think that those quasars are further away than 60 billion light years, perhaps even further away than 150 billion light years (5-3, 4-4). End May 2004]
[June 2004: In February 2004 the most distant quasar (found at that time) was at 13 billion (big bang) light years. It is supposed to be as heavy as several billion solar masses and it is a mystery for big bang astronomers how those objects formed so rapidly in the very “early” universe (700 million years after the big bang). Big bang astronomers also see evidence of carbon, nitrogen, iron and other elements, and it's not clear for them how these elements got there. There is as much iron, proportionate to the population of those “early” systems, as there is in mature galaxies nearby138.
Population II stars exist mainly in globular clusters and in the galactic halo, which may be due to little (concentrated) dust in the galactic halo.
Population I stars, with stronger concentrations of heavy elements in their outer star regions, may have gotten more dust during their formation, which may make them different from Population II stars. This is the conventional view.
Later, when many Population II stars have become dark matter objects again (perhaps after a white dwarf phase, though white dwarfs may turn out to be different than conventional science thinks right now, 6-2), those dark matter objects, cooled down, may assemble hydrogen again until they become luminous again, this time with a bigger heavy element core (bringing stronger gravitational contraction) and thus burning more fiercely: a Population I star. Perhaps also burning more fiercely because the concentrations of gas and dust in spiral arms have become higher (with a higher percentage heavy elements) in spiral arms than in the (original) elliptical galaxy that may have preceded the spiral.
[March 24 2005: It has been known for some time that, contrary to other clusters of this type, the giant southern globular cluster Omega Centauri harbours two different populations of stars that still burn hydrogen in their centres. One population, accounting for one quarter of its stars, is bluer than the other. Big bang astronomers found that the bluer stars contain more heavy elements than those of the redder population. This was exactly opposite to their expectation because their current big bang models of stars predict that the more metal-rich a star is, the redder it ought to be. They found a solution by saying that the red stars may have formed first, after which some of them exploded as supernovae and after that the blue stars formed. Normally within big bang cosmology the stars within a cluster are expected to be formed at the same time298.
During the transformation of an elliptical into a spiral a lot of hydrogen, dust and (bigger) dark matter objects swirl towards the core of the galaxy and get compressed into the direction of the core and so new stars with higher concentrations of heavy elements are born: Population I stars that outline the spiral structures of spiral galaxies.
Thus the reason why we see more Population I stars in spirals than in ellipticals may be: spirals are older galaxies and so spirals appear more blue than ellipticals. Also: much gas has been radiated away because of hydrogen burning and thus the concentration of heavy elements is raised too. And: hydrogen coming in first (outboard dust coming later, because it flows slower than hydrogen with gravity as an inertial force, see 4-3) may be a reason (too, next to inboard dust produced by supernovae and clashing dark matter) why there are less heavy elements in the stars of ellipticals than in the stars of spirals.
[May 2003: Population I stars have a smaller tendency to move out of our galactic plane than Population II stars8. Population I stars are in nearly circular galactic orbits about the core of the Milky Way where Population II stars and globular clusters are in highly eccentric orbits. And: on average Population I stars are closer to the galactic plane and show less perpendicular velocity to the galactic plane where Population II stars are further away from the galactic plane and show more perpendicular velocity to the galactic plane. Also: the distribution of Population I stars is patchy and their concentration to the galactic center is little where the distribution of Population II stars is smooth and their concentration to the galactic center is strong8.
The bulge of our Galaxy is dominated by Population II/I stars, but it contains some Population I stars where the bulge intersects the plane of our Galaxy8. Those Population I stars may have come to existence because of gas and (much) dust coming in from the plane and getting strongly concentrated where the bulge intersects the plane. Bigger, heavier and (especially) denser (4-3) objects like Population I stars (relative to Population II stars) have a stronger tendency to orbit the nuclear bulge, where gas and smaller dark matter objects have a stronger tendency to enter the nuclear bulge. Population II stars originating in the bulge may be explained by gas and (smaller) dark matter objects entering the bulge as well as dark matter debris produced by (larger) clashing dark matter objects. In the bulge there will be much more clashes between dark matter objects than in the spiral arms, thus accounting for more smaller dark matter objects in the bulge that can form Population II stars. Also: the concentration of gas is higher in the bulge, which gives smaller dark matter objects more chance to assemble enough gas to light up as stars. End May 2003]
[February 1 2008: Radio loud activity by quasars may produce gas (5-2) and this gas, coming from intergalactic space, may fall into spiral galaxies and move along “rivers of gas” in those galaxies, i.e. the gas goes where most matter is. Thus in spirals population I stars may light up and hence the spiral arms with many population I stars may be produced. The gas is tunneled through the arms towards the central bulge of the galaxy, but when it gets in the central bulge much gas already may have been swallowed by objects in the arms of the spiral. Therefore the central bulge of galaxies may have less bright stars. (Though, it may also be because there are many different objects in the central bulge to which the gas can flow.) The same process may be going on on a higher scale and hence account for new galaxies with many stars in filaments with galaxies compared to less bright galaxies in central clusters with galaxies481. Radio loud activity by quasars may produce outer clustergas that goes where most matter is, i.e. the filaments with galaxies, and through the filaments it is tunneled towards the central clusters with galaxies. The gas in the filaments lights up galaxies with many stars, but when the gas has come to the central cluster much of the gas may have been swallowed by the galaxies in the filaments. Therefore there may be less bright galaxies in the central clusters. (Though, it may also be because there are very many galaxies in the central cluster to which the gas can flow.) End February 1 2008]
[May 2004: When an elliptical transforms into a spiral then the flow of gas (mostly hydrogen) through the galaxy may be of main importance, because the flow of gas determines where new stars will light up. When an elliptical transforms into a spiral it may be so that gas in the future rotating disk of the galaxy will flow relatively slow to the center of the galaxy because of centrifugal forces, where gas above and under the plane of the future spiral will flow relatively fast to the center of the galaxy. This means that gas most close to the rotational axis (which is perpendicular to the plane of the future spiral and goes through the center of the plane) will flow first to the center of the galaxy. Perhaps this explains why the thickness of the hydrogen layer increases further away from the nuclear bulge of our Galaxy8. (Matter can fall along the rotational axis into a spiral galaxy, as has been observed116.)
[June 9 2005: Though, perhaps there is also the possibility that an elliptical galaxy shrinks to the size of the nuclear bulge of a spiral galaxy, meanwhile arms of the spiral are formed because smaller galaxies are cannibalized. I consider this as less likely because of the big differences between the sizes of elliptical galaxies and the sizes of the nuclear bulges of spiral galaxies. End June 9 2005]
With hydrogen swirling in from outside the disk it is not surprising that further away from the nuclear bulge the hydrogen is less and less in the from of H2 (because of more compression/stronger concentrations closer to the nuclear bulge) and more and more in the form of H I.
Population II stars in the halo of our Galaxy have very low metal abundances, which may be because dust and dark matter is not concentrated in the halo as it is in the spiral arms, and: dust comes later to the stars then hydrogen (4-3). (Of course, supernovae and clashing dark matter, both producing inboard dust, will play a part in this too.)
Population II stars constitute most of the total stellar mass of our Galaxy, which is logic considering that our Galaxy once may have been an elliptical with very many Population II stars. If our Galaxy becomes more and more a Sc spiral then the ration Population II versus Population I will change to relative more Population I stars.
[May 2003: Barred spirals
Ostriker and Peebles8 have explained barred spirals with too little dark matter in the halo of a spiral and hence the spiral arms become “weak”.
Dark matter coming into the halo may come from another place in space than the hydrogen (and dust) that originated the spiral (i.e. originated the elliptical that turned into a spiral; with hydrogen/dust adopting its flow-direction to the rotation of the universal engine in the core of the galaxy rather than dark matter). This may cause the halo to have a different rotation than the spiral arms, which may tear up the spiral arms, thus originating a barred spiral.
[July 2004: Such dark matter may be an old dark (shrunken) galaxy or an old dark (shrunken) cluster of galaxies (what I call g-galaxies, 4-1). A (dark shrunken) galaxy/g-galaxy that falls towards a luminous spiral galaxy in a different plane than the (rotation) plane of the spiral galaxy or with a different orbital velocity than the rotation velocity of the barred spiral then may cause the spiral galaxy to become barred (see also 4-3 and 4-4 concerning g-galaxies bringing dust disks within or around galaxies). With a lot of dark matter objects (triggering star formation, 7-1) and dust in a (dark shrunken) galaxy/g-galaxy it is not surprising that recently a team of astronomers found that the bar across the central region of the barred spiral galaxy M83 is enshrouded in dust and that this central bar shows massive star formation of hot stars204. Actually, I think that the formation of globular clusters orbiting our Milky Way in a different plane then the disk of our Milky Way is exactly the same thing: shrunken old dwarf ellipticals (or UCDs) that have become globular clusters, 4-4; the only difference then is that the old galaxy/g-galaxy within a barred spiral has much more matter and therefore then may tear up the luminous spiral galaxy. End July 2004]
[April 10 2005: Also luminous galaxies may cause barred spirals. The Milky Way's satellites lie on a flat circle, approximately perpendicular to the Galactic Plane319. Perhaps that the Milky Way turns into a barred spiral in the far future. April 10 2005]
But also: the very nucleus (for instance Sgr A West in our galactic nucleus, with a diameter of 3-4 pc) of a spiral may have a different rotation than the material surrounding the very nucleus (in a disk, for instance the overall galactic center of our galactic nucleus, with a diameter of 100 pc). Perhaps that at a certain moment the disk approaches the very nucleus of the galactic center so close that the disk starts to rotate different, and after that the whole spiral galaxy may change its rotation which may originate a barred spiral (5-3). Thus perhaps our Galaxy may become a barred spiral, with Sgr A West as the initiator that has its rotation axis perpendicular to the rotation axis of the surrounding overall galactic center disk (4-1). End May 2003]
[May 2004: An example of a galaxy with a galactic center bringing nearby material into other rotation may be the Circinus spiral galaxy, which has a “pancake” of gas and dust at the center: a warped disk surrounding the very galactic center of the galaxy89. The disk may have become warped because its very center makes the disk rotate different. End May 2004]
[July 2004: Another reason for barred spirals to come to existence may be gas flowing into a (spiral) galaxy from another angle, thus lightning up dark matter objects in another part of the dark matter halo (with a spiral forming out of an elliptical as mentioned in 4-3). Whether a galaxy becomes a normal spiral or a barred spiral may be understood by what the rotation axis of the galaxy is relative to gas coming from outside a cluster flowing inwards, see also 4-3. So the prediction here is that barred spirals may have their rotation axis pointed towards the center of the cluster where normal spirals have their central disk pointed towards the center of the cluster. Though, one must take in mind how gas flows towards the center of the cluster, because the gas may stream along concentrations of galaxies towards the center of the cluster (as may be with gas flowing through spirals, 4-3). End July 2004] [March 15 2006: Astronomers studying a disk of material circling a still-forming star inside our Galaxy have found that the inner part of the disk is orbiting the protostar in the opposite direction from the outer part of the disk. The astronomers think the system may have gotten material from two clouds of gas instead of one, and the two were rotating in opposite directions. Though this is the first time such a phenomenon has been seen in a disk around a young star, the phenomenon has been previously reported in the disks of galaxies402. Thus galaxy-formation indeed may be influenced by clouds of gas coming from different directions as mentioned here discussing possible ways of barred spiral formation. End March 15 2006]
The stars and matter of a galaxy with a universal engine that is rotating too little may fall to fast inwards which may cause an explosion. Perhaps this can cause ring galaxy formation: part of the galaxy's stars flow outward with the exploded matter, thus causing the ring, and part of the galaxy's stars fall back inwards to the remains of the universal engine, thus causing the bright center of the ring galaxy.
[May 2003: Perhaps universal engines that explode in such a way can be radio quiet QSOs (in elliptical galaxies) which don't explode with a FR II jet, but which explode “totally” because they don't have enough rotation (5-2). Such an explosion may cause an extremely strong gamma ray burst (5-2), which then may explain (part of the) Ultra High-Energy Cosmic Rays (5-2). End May 2003]
[June 2004: Perhaps that ring galaxies can come to existence when a galaxy starts orbiting a compact massive (luminous/nonluminous) galaxy. The smaller galaxy then may orbit the larger galaxy in an ellipse (for the same reasons planets orbit our Sun in an ellipse, 7-1). Stars may be ripped apart by tidal forces bringing a ring of star clusters around the massive galaxy123. Gas from the orbiting galaxy may flow towards the central galaxy, thus lightning up the galaxy in case the central galaxy was nonluminous (or: a sphere of blackened stars). End June 2004]
The elliptical tree
Not only giant ellipticals can be formed by hydrogen clouds and dark matter. Ellipticals of all kind of different magnitudes can be formed, depending on the strength of the universal engine (or: old galaxy/g-galaxy) that brought the hydrogen together and depending on the amount of hydrogen available in the surrounding intergalactic gas.
The strength of the universal engine and the available hydrogen are correlated to a certain degree: more (dark) matter in the engine means that from further away hydrogen will be attracted. And: a stronger universal engine with more dark matter (often) will mean a larger surrounding void (where the universal engine or g-galaxy originated from) with hydrogen to be assembled from and less competing universal engines nearby.
Dark matter objects that escaped from the gravitational grip of galaxies or g-galaxies may float in all kind of directions and in all kind of concentrations through the universe and so may universal engines. Very heavy universal engines will be more immobile (though perhaps not on very large scales, which may mean that quasars may have big velocities, 5-4).
With different amounts of hydrogen available to all kind universal engines all kind of elliptical galaxies may come to existence: cD galaxies, giants, normal size, dwarfs and globular clusters.
Some starburst galaxies may be spiral galaxies, Irregular Is, dark spirals or dark g-galaxies that get hydrogen “too soon” (for instance because of radio loud activity somewhere else relatively nearby in the Universe, 5-2, or because by coincidence a big stream of hydrogen comes “along”), which may bring a galaxy like the irregular galaxy M82 (though, of course, merging of galaxies, as thought by current astronomy right now, may have originated M82 as well).
Spirals that get fuelled with a lot of extra gas (coming from intergalactic space, or: outboard gas) may turn into starburst galaxies where as spirals that are fuelled with little gas may turn into LINERs (which may, later, turn into Seyferts 2, 5-3). Spirals that get hardly fueled at all may turn into Irregular Is (4-4). [July 2004: Perhaps that one big cloud of gas going into a galaxy can bring a barred spiral, 4-4. End July 2004]
Many ultraluminous far-infrared galaxies are starburst galaxies. The far-infrared emission in these sources is thermal radiation from dust heated by massive star formation in the starburst galaxy. This may be an example of dust attracted slower and thus travelling slower than hydrogen (4-3), thus accounting for the dust surrounding the starburst galaxy.
A group of stars may darken and shrink and thus become a group of (cold) dark matter objects. Such a group of dark matter objects may get fuelled by hydrogen, after which it may light up as a Super Star Cluster (SSC). SSCs are young and massive star clusters that are found to form in every starburst environment, from dwarf irregular galaxies that harbor just a few SSCs, to giant starbursts that harbor 1000s of them. SSCs are extremely massive and compact with masses of order 104 - 107 MSun42.
SSCs may descend from many groups of dark matter objects (which may have been former dwarf galaxies or globular clusters) when a starburst environment gets fuelled by new hydrogen. It would explain why SSCs dominate star formation in starbursts.
[March 31 2005: The Trifid Nebula is a giant star-forming cloud of gas and dust located 5,400 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius. Previous images had hinted that the nebula contained four cold “knots” of dust. Astronomers knew these are the incubators, where new stars are born, but they didn't think they had actually begun star formation yet. Spitzer has revealed that they have already formed at least 30 embryonic stars. In the cores with multiple embryos, astronomers have seen that the most massive and brightest of the bunch is near the center. They think that this implies that the developing stars are competing for materials, and that the embryo with the most material will grow to be the largest star309.
[May 2003: Another way of galaxy formation
The most common galaxies in the universe are dwarf ellipticals (dE galaxies).
Giant ellipticals may originate from very heavy universal engines, but if so then there ought to be much more smaller universal engines sweeping gas from a smaller volume of space. This may be the reason why dE galaxies are most numerous in the universe: there will be lots of dE galaxies due to lots of small voids and lots of small amounts of dark matter, i.e. small universal engines. [June 2004: Or small g-galaxies, 4-3. End June 2004]
The most obvious difference between dwarf ellipticals and the true ellipticals, aside from size, is the lack of a bright nuclear region in the dE galaxy. This may be because dE galaxies don't have a strong universal engine in the nuclear region.
[July 2004: When ellipticals don't get fuelled with gas at all or don't have a strong (rotating) universal engine creating a gas of disk (4-3) they may (in the far future, when finally fuelled with gas) become a dwarf elliptical instead of a spiral.
[June 2004: Big bang astronomers think that there are supermassive black holes at the centers of giant galaxies like our own Milky Way, while the smaller stellar systems are not supposed to have any black holes. Big bang astronomers suggest that the smaller stellar systems used to have black holes that were kicked out142.
[August 2004: Strong concentrations of matter, 4,000 and 20,000 times that of our Sun, in the centers of (at least) 2 globular clusters have been observed. Big bang astronomers think that there are “black holes” in these clusters233. Also globular clusters may originate with dark matter objects as the “seeds” that trigger star formation as well dark matter objects concentrating in the center of the cluster thus bringing (what big bang astronomers think is) a “black hole”. End August 2004]
Dwarf ellipticals can move to bigger nearby galaxies and get swallowed, which may account for, for instance, the globular clusters in our Galaxy, but also our nearby dwarf ellipticals Sculptor, Leo I and II, Ursa Minor and Draco. (Thus (some) dwarf ellipticals may be progenitors of globular clusters, i.e. when those dwarf ellipticals start rotating a larger galaxy meanwhile shrinking and blackening, until the dark matter objects lighten up by new hydrogen flowing in the (old) dwarf elliptical/(now) globular cluster. [July 2004: Ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs) too may be progenitors of globular clusters, 4-4, and “planetary nebulae” too may be progenitors of globular clusters, 4-4. End July 2004]
Globular clusters that rotate highly eccentric about the nucleus of our Galaxy may (also) originate from dark matter object concentrations that were at quite some distance from the (old) elliptical galaxy (which our spiral Galaxy may have originated from). This distance may have caused the high eccentricity.
[May 2004: With globular clusters going to major galaxies and starting rotating those major galaxies one expects to find such clusters in intergalactic space too, unbound, not tied to major galaxies. Such globular clusters were spotted in 200396. End May 2004]
The globular clusters that form a sphere around the Galaxy's center are metal poor. In contrast, the metal rich globular clusters make up a disk-like distribution with a scale height of 1 kpc8.
Perhaps globular clusters can be examples of hydrogen clouds that started star formation with only little or no dark matter (objects). (Though perhaps it is not possible to have star formation without dark matter.)
[August 2004: I rather see globular clusters as remnants of galaxies of an old cluster with much dark matter objects/burned out stars/white dwarfs in a small volume of space. The globular cluster M4, 7,000 light years from Earth, contains many white dwarfs and the entire cluster contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across240. M4 may be an old (dE?) galaxy that has shrunken and which has been refuelled with new gas. The Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxy may have been two clusters of galaxies in the past that have come to orbit each other. The 150 globular clusters in the galactic halo of the Milky Way may be former galaxies (shrunken and refuelled with gas) of the old cluster that our Milky Way may have originated from.
Big bang astronomers think that new research concerning globular clusters shows that some globular clusters may be remnants of dwarf galaxies. The team studied 14 globular clusters in the large elliptical galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128) and found that the globular clusters of Centaurus A are much more massive than most globulars in the Local Group of galaxies. Their findings hint at an connection between the largest globular clusters and the smallest dwarf galaxies, the largest globular clusters are in the same mass range as the smallest dwarf galaxies. The big bang team sees the recent discovery of a suspected intermediate-mass “black hole” in the Andromeda Galaxy globular cluster known as G1 as further evidence linking globular clusters to dwarf galaxies, for the presence of a moderate-sized “black hole” is more understandable if it once occupied the center of a dwarf galaxy250. End August 2004]
[December 2004: A discovery announced by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) reveals a clump of stars unlike any seen before. This clump of newly discovered stars, called SDSSJ1049+5103 or Willman 1, is so faint that it could only be found as a slight increase in the number of faint stars in a small region of the sky. The object was discovered in a search for extremely dim companion galaxies to the Milky Way. However, it is 200 times less luminous than any galaxy previously seen. A possibility is that Willman 1 is an unusual type of globular cluster, a spherical agglomeration of thousands to millions of old stars. Its properties are rather unusual for a globular cluster. It is dimmer than all known globular clusters. Moreover, these dim globular clusters are all much more compact than Willman 1. Another possibility is that this new object is in fact a dwarf galaxy. Then the object may be the tip of the iceberg of a yet unseen population of ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. Whether it is a globular cluster or a dwarf galaxy, according to the researchers this very faint object appears to represent one of the building blocks of the Milky Way259.
Absence of dwarf spirals may be because:
Dwarf ellipticals and globular and open clusters may end as supernovae (5-2), Cepheids or other variable stars.
Normal spiral galaxies and barred spiral galaxies may eventually become partly dark and the galaxies may be teared up by tidal forces by other galaxies or/and by dark matter in the halo. This way the appearance of spiral galaxies may become “irregular”.
Thus spiral galaxies may be progenitors of Irr I's.
Irr I's may be an older generation than spirals as spirals may be an older generation than ellipticals.
[August 2004: With Irr I's being older galaxies with a lot of (larger) dark matter objects/blackened stars it is not surprising that one of the most active star-forming regions in our Local Group of galaxies, the Tarantula Nebula, also known as 30 Doradus, is situated in the Large Magellanic Cloud239, an Irr I galaxy. End August 2004]
There are not many Irr I galaxies: 3% of the observed galaxies are irregulars (big irregulars, for there are many small irregulars)8.
[May 2003: There is, of course, also the possibility that spirals and/or Irr I's never become completely dark. Perhaps that almost always there will pop up (at least) some hydrogen from somewhere (out of intergalactic space; or because cooled down (smaller) stars/white dwarfs loose gas, thus “feeding” the bigger dark matter objects) and if not (like, perhaps, in the case of BL Lacertae objects, 5-3) then dark matter objects may merge and gravitationally contract (at least in the center of spirals/Irr I's) and thus “dark” spirals/Irr I's may always radiate at least some (visible) light. Perhaps many darkened Irr I's look like dwarf irregulars this way. Many dwarf irregulars thus may have much more (dark) mass than expected so far. End May 2003]
Irr I's show little rotation8: the rotation velocity of the old spiral may have diminished by attracting hydrogen, dust and dark matter objects from intergalactic space; and inertial forces (by gravity, 3-2) may have diminished the rotation velocity of the galaxy. Also: Irregular I's have lost a lot of mass by radiation and thus may be easier to tear apart by gravitational forces from other galaxies, and: galaxies, on their way to become part of g-galaxies, orbit other galaxies in smaller and smaller orbits, thus gravitational forces from other galaxies become stronger. [July 2004: Perhaps that Irr I's can also descend from elliptical galaxies with not a strong universal engine in its core that doesn't bring a disk of gas in an elliptical (4-3). End July 2004]
With ellipticals being progenitors of spirals and spirals being progenitors of Irr I's it may make sense that (big) ellipticals are a scale bigger than spirals and that spirals are a scale bigger than Irr I's (table content taken from Zeilik/Gregory8):
Ellipticals (1 to 200 kpc) shrink to smaller spirals (5 to 50 kpc) which shrink to smaller Irr I's (1 to 10 kpc). [July 2004: Though, spirals may have a larger diameter with a large halo. Thus ellipticals may shrink less than the presented table suggests, i.e. outer parts of the elliptical may become dark rather than shrink. End July 2004]
Stars in ellipticals (mostly II and some I) stop shining, cool down, assemble hydrogen, and pop up as Population I stars (4-4, 7-1). So stars in spirals will have more heavy elements (I in arms, II and I overall). Irr I's, coming after the spiral phase, then, of course, will have stars with even higher heavy element content (mostly I and some II).
[November 7 2005: One may wonder why the outer arms of spiral galaxies often are blue, i.e. why there may be a lot of stars with heavy cores of dark matter in the outer arms of spiral galaxies like spiral galaxy NGC 1350378. Perhaps that when there is relatively little gas relatively big dark matter objects will attract the major amount of gas that is available and so stars with relatively big dark matter objects light up, hence the outer arms of spiral galaxies may show up blue (this may also explain blue stars in Irregular I galaxies). Nearer to the center of galaxies also smaller dark matter objects may assemble (more concentrated by flowing towards the center) hydrogen, which then also (next to the idea that the white Popular II stars may be the old stars of an elliptical) may explain stars with white light. End November 7 2005]
[April 1 2005: There is something double about galaxies getting old and dust formation. With a lot of dark matter objects in a galaxy one may expect clashes between those objects, thus producing dust. So one may expect to have more dust in spiral galaxies than in elliptical galaxies (also because of supernovae) and more dust in Irregular I's than in spiral galaxies. On the other hand, if a galaxy has become very old with very many dark matter objects and no or hardly stars (because hydrogen/gas has burned up) then the dust in such galaxies may have collected itself on dark matter objects. This then may explain why ellipticals have little dust, i.e. if indeed ellipticals originate from (very) old darkened and merged galaxies getting refueled by hydrogen/gas. Irregular I galaxies may be somewhere in between old (partly) darkened galaxies and very old darkened galaxies, i.e. Irregular I's may contain much dust (by clashing dark matter objects and by supernovae) as well as little dust (when the dust has collected itself on dark matter objects). Perhaps that an Irregular I can have regions with much dust/many heavy elements as well as little dust/little heavy elements at the same time.
[March 15 2006: NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has observed a population of colliding galaxies whose entangled hearts are wrapped in tiny crystals resembling crushed glass. The crystals are essentially sand, or silicate, grains. This was the first time silicate crystals were detected in a galaxy outside of our own. The researchers were surprised to find the crystals in the centers of galaxies. The silicates wrap the galaxies' nuclei in giant, dusty glass blankets. The crystal-coated galaxies observed by Spitzer are quite different from our Milky Way. These bright and dusty galaxies, called ultraluminous infrared galaxies are swimming in silicate crystals. While a small fraction of the ultraluminous infrared galaxies cannot be seen clearly enough to characterize, most consist of two spiral-shaped galaxies in the process of merging into one. Their jumbled cores are hectic places, often bursting with massive, newborn stars. Astronomers believe the massive stars at the galaxies' centers are the main manufacturers (by supernovae) of the crystals403.
If spirals descend from ellipticals they will contain more (i.e. have a higher percentage of) blackened stars/dark matter than ellipticals.
[March 2004: The kinematics of the outer parts of three intermediate-luminosity elliptical galaxies have been studied in recent years. The galaxies’ velocity dispersion profiles were found to decline with radius; dynamical modeling of the data indicated the presence of little if any dark matter in these galaxies’ halos. This was reported in 2003. Three elliptical galaxies seem to contain little or no dark matter. A team led by Aaron Romanowsky of the University of Nottingham in the UK found that the dynamics of the elliptical galaxies could be explained without the need for dark matter, in contrast to the motion of spiral galaxies81. The unexpected result questions the widely held belief within conventional astronomy that elliptical galaxies form when (spiral) galaxies rich in dark matter collide. Ellipticals having hardly dark matter and spirals having much dark matter therefore is a major problem within conventional astronomy82. Ellipticals having less dark matter than spirals is argued on this website throughout the chapters 4-3 and 4-4, but was already predicted on this website in January 2002 throughout chapter 4-2 (of my old website). And: with a rotating shrunken galaxy or shrunken cluster of galaxies (or: a universal engine, 4-1) slowly bringing an elliptical into rotation (as argued on this website since January 2002) also the velocity dispersion profiles declining with radius in elliptical galaxies is explained. [March 16 2006: However, whether really the velocity dispersion profiles decline with radius and therefore not much dark matter is to be expected within these galaxies is something that remains to be seen. Recent research concerning an elliptical galaxy has shown evidence for normal quantities of dark matter in the galaxy's dark halo because the measured velocity dispersion of the system was found to be constant with radius from the galaxy center, indicating significant dark matter at large radii in its halo405. The question about dark matter within elliptical galaxies is still far from answered. End March 16 2006]
In a shrunken spiral galaxy hydrogen still will be streaming towards the nucleus of the galaxy. Such hydrogen then concentrates more and more towards the nucleus and lights up cold dark matter objects (4-1) towards the nucleus. This “concentration effect” may explain why dark matter objects are lighted up towards the nucleus and thus may explain why dark mater objects (probably mostly old blackened stars of the outskirts of the old elliptical) towards the halo do not light up, which would explain the missing dark matter towards the halo. (Though, hydrogen/gas in the halo flowing to the galactic disk may explain part of the missing dark matter too.) End March 2004]
[January 2006: Bright, boxy ellipticals show strong signatures of dark matter, while faint, disky ones typically do not380. This may be because bright galaxies may only become bright when there is lot of dark matter around to light up stars. End January 2006]
[September 1 2005: The results of a comprehensive survey of more than 4,000 elliptical and lenticular galaxies in 93 nearby galaxy clusters contrast sharply with the conventional hierarchical model of galaxy formation and evolution, where large elliptical galaxies in the nearby universe formed by swallowing smaller galaxies with young stars344. The evolutionary history of elliptical galaxies and lenticular galaxies (which have a central bulge and a disk, but no evidence of spiral arms) is not well understood, big bang astronomers say. Their colors appear to be redder than typical spiral galaxies. The largest ellipticals are the reddest of all, but so far it has not been clear whether this property results primarily from being older in age, as the astronomers think they found with their survey, or from having a higher proportion of heavy chemical elements. “These so-called red galaxies contain the bulk of the stellar mass in the nearby universe, but we know little about their formation and evolution,” says Russell Smith of the University of Waterloo. “It was thought that all of the red galaxies were made of stars that formed very early, and are now quite old. Our results show that while this is true for the large galaxies, the smaller ones formed their stars comparatively recently in the history of the Universe. We predict that as new surveys look deeper and hence further into the past, they should see fewer faint red galaxies.”344
I predict that such new surveys will show the same number of faint red galaxies. That is, if the distance is calculated with tired light redshift (5-3). What probably will happen is that big bang astronomers will look for numbers of faint red galaxies and indeed find a lower number, but this will be because they will be looking for galaxies at much larger distances then they think they are dealing with. So less faint galaxies will be found because less faint galaxies at larger distances can be spotted. Of course the astronomers will assume that less faint galaxies can be seen at larger distances, but in their calculations they won't account for much larger distances because of tired light instead expansion redshift (5-3). I think the riddle with the red galaxies is to be solved with a different approach. When galaxies shrink the largest galaxies, the big ellipticals, are the galaxies with the youngest generation of stars, hence those stars are the reddest stars. Lenticular galaxies are older and therefore many of the stars in the galaxy have blackened, cooled down, assembled new gas and lit up with a bigger core of heavy metals and hence burn more fiercely, i.e. they are less red and more blue. The same goes for spirals that are older galaxies than the lenticular galaxies. End September 1 2005]
[July 9 2006: Recently big bang astronomers found some spirals that looked old instead of looking like young galaxies as they expected419. End July 9 2006]
[May 3 2005: Big bang astronomers have studied the large elliptical galaxy NGC 6482 which shines with the equivalent of 110 billion Suns. Using Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer they used observations of hot gas within NGC 6482 to trace the distribution of dark matter in NGC 6482. Speaking at the RAS National Astronomy Meeting in Birmingham the astronomers described the discovery of a remarkable concentration of dark matter in the core of NGC 6482323. When cd Galaxies and large ellipticals descend from old shrunken (partly) darkened clusters of galaxies (which I have named g-galaxies, 4-1) as described on this website (4-3) then it is no surprise that astronomers find strong concentrations of dark matter in the centers of ellipticals. End May 3 2005]
[December 2004: NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has detected an extensive envelope of dark matter around an isolated elliptical galaxy, known as NGC 4555. NGC 4555 may be an example of a galaxy coming to existence in the middle of a nonluminous void (4-1). End December 2004]
[July 2004: The gas in planetary nebulae, used by Romanowsky's team to study the kinematics of the outer parts of the elliptical galaxies206, may contain a lot of dark matter objects (i.e. the gas may have concentrated itself towards groups of dark matter objects rather than that the gas is a remnant of an old star or old stars). Such groups of dark matter objects + gas, i.e. planetary nebulae, may be progenitors of globular (and open) clusters. Such clusters of stars then will orbit the central galaxy with ever increasing orbiting speeds at ever decreasing distances from the central galaxy. Speeds of planetary nebulae then will be higher when it comes to spiral galaxies relative to ellipticals, with ellipticals as progenitors of spiral galaxies. Such reasoning may change our view on “missing” dark matter. (Instead of a hot star in the center of the planetary nebula a glowing dark matter object or a dark matter object with little gas may be the central object that brings hot radiation, 5-2.) End July 2004]
[June 2004: Perhaps some (old) ellipticals do contain a lot of dark matter, like NGC 4261. X-ray observations have made big bang astronomers believe that NGC 4261 has “dozens of black holes and neutron stars strung out across space like beads on a necklace” in the outer edges of the galaxy159.
Dark matter objects may be able to radiate X-rays (5-2, 5-2), which then may explain the X-ray radiation in the outer edges of NGC 4261. End June 2004] [July 2004: Such “dark” matter objects then may be rather merged multiple (smaller) dark matter objects of a g-galaxy that has been cannibalized by NGC 4261. End July 2004]
[June 2004: Maybe that in the outer parts of the Milky Way stars can blacken en become denser, which then perhaps may cause such stars to be less tied to the center of the Milky Way by gravity (3-2) and slowly move away to more outer regions of our Galaxy. This too may explain (part of) the missing dark matter. End June 2004]
[May 2004: An elliptical that shrinks into a spiral galaxy may blacken at certain places due to the flow of hydrogen and this may explain why our (luminous) galaxy has its spiral shape while the dark matter distribution in our galaxy is spherical (4-4). End May 2004] [July 2004: See also 4-3. End July 2004]
And: Sc spirals (descending from Sb spirals) will have more dark matter than Sb spirals which will have more dark matter than Sa spirals. When Irr I's descend from spirals then Ir I's will have more dark matter than spirals.
[April 2004: With solar system formation by dark matter objects swinging themselves around stars, as mentioned in 7-1 and the here mentioned galaxy formation, there will be more solar systems in spiral galaxies than in elliptical galaxies and more solar systems in spiral Sb than in spiral Sa galaxies and more solar systems in spiral Sc than in spiral Sb galaxies and more solar systems in Irr I galaxies than in spiral Sc galaxies. End April 2004]
[October 2003: The progression from Sa to Sc is one of decreasing prominence of the central bulge and increasing prominence of the disk rotating about it75. A compact old universal engine in the center of the nuclear bulge may explain the fast shrinking of the nuclear bulge relative to the disk rotating about it. End October 2003] [July 2004: Also gas streaming along the arms (4-3) into the galaxy will bring more and hotter stars in the spiral arms, thus increasing the prominence of the disk rotating the bulge. End July 2004]
[May 2003: Perhaps that irregulars can originate (too) when galaxies orbit each other with discordant directions of rotation as in Fig. 4-4-Ia and 4-4-Ib (see also 4-1), thus “ruining” each other.
Two galaxies with the directions of rotation different than their mutual orbiting direction.
Two galaxies with different directions of rotation.
End May 2003]
The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) may be old spiral galaxies that have become Irr I galaxies.
They are still reasonable heavy (LMC has 100 times less mass than our Galaxy) and they are moving with (different, so they may be a binary system) speeds towards our Galaxy, whereas the dwarf galaxies close to our Galaxy don't show movement relative to our Galaxy8 (which may mean that LMC and SMC are old compared to the dwarf ellipticals, otherwise the dwarf ellipticals would (already) move (faster) towards our Galaxy as well).
[May 2003: LMC and SMC may be very old spiral galaxies that have radiated away much mass during many years, and they may be an example of 2 galaxies ruining each other as mentioned with Fig. 4-4-I. End May 2003]
[July 2004: Big bang astronomers see the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) as a “nest of X-ray binary pulsars” which they think is the result of the creative burst that spawned thousands of massive new stars 100 million years ago207. I see X-ray bursters as very old objects and as objects with a lot of heavy elements, 5-2. Such objects then are likely to be found in very old galaxies like the LMC and SMC, in which stars have had enormous times to produce heavy elements (and in which dark matter objects had time to merge). Finding relatively many X-ray bursters in the SMC thus may be no surprise at all. End July 2004]
As mentioned before in 4-4: if irregulars I are very old spirals and at the brink of becoming dark then it may make sense that there are relatively few (big) irregulars I (3%).
This may go for ellipticals versus spirals as well.
Probably the elliptical phase of a galaxy is shorter than the spiral (Sa + Sb + Sc) phase and hence there may be more spirals than ellipticals (i.e. ellipticals with high mass magnitudes, for dwarf ellipticals are very numerous).
But also, as mentioned above: perhaps that spirals can descend directly from disk-shaped universal engines, which would account for a higher number of spirals relative to ellipticals as well.
[August 2004: Big bang astronomers have discovered an extended halo of stars with a sharp cutoff in the dwarf irregular galaxy Leo A, a member of the Local Group. The existence of such a halo structure in dwarf irregular galaxies had been unconfirmed before this observation and challenges current big bang scenarios of galaxy formation by showing that instead of being the preservers of pristine building blocks that combined to form larger galaxies, dwarf irregular galaxies have their own history of build-up248. With the on this website described way of galaxy formation, i.e. galaxies shrink and their outer regions blacken, one expects a dwarf irregular to have an extended halo. End August 2004]
Throughout the universe there are regular clusters and irregular clusters.
Regular clusters are giant systems with spherical symmetry and a high degree of central condensation. They frequently contain many thousands of member galaxies. Almost all members of regular clusters are either elliptical or SO galaxies.
Irregular clusters contain a mixture of all types of galaxies and are more disk structured.
A regular cluster may descend from a former old giant (spherical) g-galaxy that has been fuelled by hydrogen (4-1) from intergalactic (or rather: intercluster) space. (A stable spherical enduring g-galaxy may only come to existence when its sub-g-galaxies and galaxies predominantly orbit and rotate in the same way (4-1).)
Though, irregular clusters may rather be regions in which there has been luminosity for a very long time. Thus galaxies in irregular clusters may have reached spiral and irregular forms.
Irregular clusters are smaller than regular clusters, which, when regular clusters are (or can be) progenitors of irregular clusters, may be due to shrinking.
Regular clusters have more spherical symmetry than irregular clusters. The time that a regular cluster is in a spherical/early/"elliptical" state is probably much shorter than the time it is in its irregular state, i.e. if regular clusters can turn into irregular clusters. This may (partly) explain why irregular clusters of galaxies are far more numerous than regular clusters6.
But also: perhaps that irregular clusters can descend “directly”, i.e. a big cluster in the center attracts other clusters that start orbiting the big cluster, thus directly forming a disk shaped irregular cluster or supercluster. (Perhaps that all superclusters are formed this way, i.e. all superclusters are disk shaped irregular superclusters, but perhaps that one day a regular supercluster is found with spherical symmetry.)
98% of the visible galaxies of the Local Supercluster are contained in just 11 clouds that fill a mere 5% of the overall volume8. Yet, the clouds do delineate a disk structure, with a width about ten times its thickness8.
Thus, structures in space may get flattened by rotation.
Another example of a spiral or disk shaped object that may have become a sphere may be Sagittarius A*. And: our Galaxy may become a universal engine in the form of a sphere in the very far future (but also an Irregular I, which may, of course, still end up as a sphere). Our Galaxy has quite a few small galaxies within 250 kpc that may turn our Galaxy in the future rather into a sphere than into a Irregular I, but of course, much may depend on how all the small galaxies will orbit our Galaxy in the future. Our Galaxy may also end up as a spiral object, like Sgr A West in the nucleus of our Galaxy (4-1).
[May 2004: Peering back in time more than 7 billion (big bang) years, a team of astronomers using a powerful new spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii has obtained the first maps showing the distribution of galaxies at such a long distance. They found that older redder galaxies with little ongoing star formation are much more strongly clustered in space than abundant star-forming younger galaxies92.
Statistical tests indicate that the clustering of galaxies seen in the new found 7-billion-big-bang-years-distance galaxy maps is not as strong as that seen in the local universe92.
Is it possible that (part of the) faraway galaxies appear to be galaxies, but really are clusters of galaxies? Because in an infinite universe “galaxies” with z=3.2 are more likely to be at a distance of somewhere between 37 and 63 billion light-years with tired light redshift than at a distance of 11.5 billion light years with expansion redshift (5-3)?
Perhaps sometimes we may see a point in a galaxy and think that a star (or a small cluster of stars) is shining where in fact we see a galaxy as a point in a cluster?
[February 2004: One also may have to consider how much of the redshift can be intrinsic redshift due to gravitational redshift (5-4). End February 2004]
Perhaps apparent galaxies look like irregular-peculiar galaxies very far away.
[May 2003: This may have been observed by the Hubble Space Telescope: 57% of the objects in the Hubble Deep Field picture of December 1995 are irregular-peculiar objects compared to 1.4% irregulars for nearby galaxies6.
[April 5 2005: David Lumb and colleagues at the Space Research Technology Centre in the Netherlands (ESTEC) have measured that galaxy clusters in the distant universe emit more X-rays than those in the near universe, much to their surprise315.
[March 28 2005: Last year new pictures made by the Hubble Telescope were published, the so-called Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) pictures. The HUDF pictures show objects that existed “400 to 800 million years after the big bang” (corresponding to a redshift range of 12 to 7). The galaxies in the HUDF have various sizes, shapes, and colors. Astronomers say there is a zoo of oddball galaxies littering the field. Some look like toothpicks; others like links on a bracelet. A few appear to be interacting301.
[January 23 2006: Big bang astronomers have studied distant galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and found to their surprise that relatively large and bright “galaxies” did not show fluctuation in brightness. However, a number of faint galaxies fluctuated significantly in brightness over time. The researchers don't know the reason why bright galaxies don't fluctuate and faint galaxies do393.
[June 2004: Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field turned out to be similar in many ways to considerably closer galaxies. A team of big bang astronomers found that most of the galaxies, which they think existed when their big bang universe was only about one billion years old, had populations of stars similar to the much closer galaxies that could be up to three billion years old. Some big bang researchers had predicted that the earliest galaxies should be much bluer due to an abundance of extremely hot stars168. But this doesn't seem to be the case, much to the surprise of the team. Many of the galaxies also appear to be interacting167.
[May 2004: An in 1997 observed galaxy behind CL1358+62 with a redshift of 4.92 may not be a galaxy, but a cluster or even a supercluster instead93. End May 2004]
[May 2004: In 2003 astronomers reported about new pictures of galaxies very far away, pictures taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST astronomers reported that the sizes of galaxies clearly would increase continuously from the time the (big bang) universe was about 1 billion years old to an age of 6 billion years; approximately half the current age of the big bang universe, 13.7 billion years. They reported about star birth rate raising mildly, by about a factor of three, between the time the universe was about one billion years old and 1.5 billion years old. Star birth remained high until about 7 billion years ago, when it quickly dropped to one-tenth the earlier “baby boomer” rate. This was seen as further evidence for major galaxy building trailing off when the universe was about half its current age. This increase in galaxy size is thought by them to be consistent with “bottom-up” models, where galaxies grow hierarchically, through mergers and accretion of smaller satellite galaxies104.
With a tired light model instead of expansion redshift the “early universe” galaxies in the HST surveys are much further away, perhaps over a 70 billion light years (instead of over 12 billion big bang light years away, 5-3). This may explain some of the above mentioned ways of reasoning of big bang astronomers concerning star birth in the “early universe”. If it turns out that (part of) the “galaxies” they think they see are in fact clusters of galaxies then seeing those clusters a little better (i.e. “between the time the universe was about one billion years old and 1.5 billion years old”; on a tired light scale there is a much bigger distance difference than 0.5 billion light-years) means seeing more smaller dots or more galaxies within the cluster, which they may mistake for increasing star birth rate.
When far away clusters are indeed mistaken for galaxies then you will have a point where big bang astronomers will switch from seeing clusters (which they mistake for galaxies) into seeing (really) galaxies. This may be at a distance of 7 billion (big bang) light years (i.e. the moment where they now think that star birth rate quickly dropped to one-tenth the earlier “baby boomer” rate; and: the moment “galaxies” stopped increasing).
Big bang astronomers think that the sizes of major galaxies increase until 7 billion (big bang) light years ago. But things are different when the distances to far away galaxies are very much larger than expected so far. Galaxies in the “early universe” (which, again, actually may be clusters) that are now thought of as relatively small are much bigger when they are at much bigger distances.
[January 2005: When astronomers mistake clusters of galaxies for galaxies then one expects that certain types of “galaxies”, i.e. clusters, will be observed by big bang astronomers really as clusters at different redshifts than other “galaxies”/clusters. For instance: small compact clusters with very many small galaxies will be seen as clusters relatively late, i.e. at relatively low redshift, where large clusters with relatively few but big galaxies are seen as clusters at relatively large redshift, i.e. the individual galaxies are really seen as galaxies by big bang astronomers at a large redshift. This means one does not expect the change of “clusters no longer mistaken for galaxies” to happen at a particular distance, like 7 billion (big bang) light years, but rather within a distance-range, for instance a distance span from roughly 8,0 billion to 4,0 billion (big bang) light-years. This may have been observed.
[February 1 2008: Big bang cosmologists think that during the history of the big bang universe the cosmic landscape became less and less dominated by violent galaxy mergers. But not only is this their theory, they also claim they have measured it479. I think that when they look back in time they more and more mistake clusters of galaxies for galaxies and therefore they wrongly concluded that there were more galaxy mergers in the past. End February 1 2008]
[March 17 2006: Big bang astronomers have measured the velocity fields of several tens of distant galaxies, leading to the surprising discovery that as much as 40% of distant galaxies were “out of balance” - their internal motions were very disturbed - a possible sign for the astronomers that they are still showing the aftermath of collisions between galaxies. When the researchers limited themselves to only those galaxies that have apparently reached their equilibrium, the scientists found that the relation between the dark matter and the stellar content did not appear to have evolved during the last 6 billions years407.
[January 24 2006: Big bang astronomers tracked star formation in galaxies out to modest distances, more than half the age of the universe, and found that all galaxies, big or small, seem to be fading gradually so that they are less active today than they were further back in time. Astronomers have found from previous galaxy surveys that star formation activity becomes more intense as they probe farther back in time395.
The same group of astronomers also took the deepest X-ray image ever taken (by the Chandra X-ray Observatory). They discovered mysterious “black holes”, which have no optical counterparts. Seven mysterious sources were completely invisible in the optical with HST. The group concluded that the seven sources were either the most distant “black holes” ever detected, or the sources were less distant “black holes” that are the most dust enshrouded known104.
The same group of astronomers also found that active “black holes” in distant, relatively small galaxies were rarer than expected104. What may have happened is: those “relatively small galaxies” may have been relatively small clusters with relatively few AGNs. Or: the “relatively small galaxies” were major galaxies with relatively few AGNs.
The galaxy cluster Abell 2029 at a billion (big bang) light years is composed of thousands of galaxies enveloped in a gigantic cloud of hot gas105 (X-ray picture = top picture). The cluster could easily be looked at as a galaxy when it would have been more then 40 billion light years away. Clusters very much further away may be easily looked upon as galaxies by big bang astronomers who, of course, never will look at such “galaxies” as further away than 13.7 billion years. The “galaxies” 3C294 and 4C41.17, which are 10 and 12 billion (big bang) light-years from Earth, respectively and therefore in reality perhaps more than 40 billion light years away (5-3), seem to be typically “galaxies” that may turn out to be clusters107 (note that object in left picture is much further away). [January 2005: Also the hereafter mentioned “mysterious blobs” (4-4) at a distance of 11 big bang light-years may turn out to be gas that is enveloping galaxy clusters (like Abell 2029) rather than galaxies (as thought by big bang astronomers). End January 2005]
Another group of astronomers found 10 galaxies at a distance of almost 12 billion (big bang) light years. They found that those galaxies must be “the most luminous type of galaxies in the universe, several hundred times more luminous than our Milky Way”113. If the objects are at a distance of over 50 billion light years those “most luminous galaxies” may not galaxies, but clusters of galaxies. End May 2004]
[May 3 2005: In April 2005 big bang astronomers announced they had showed that galaxies can have redshifts of about 6, which means they are so far away that light from them has taken about 13 billion years to reach us. The next step was to learn more about the stars within these most distant galaxies by studying new infrared images of this region of space taken by Spitzer. Hubble Space Telescope images already had given information about the stars, but the new infrared images taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope gave extra information about the light that comes from stars within these distant big bang galaxies. Using the Spitzer images, the team was able to “weigh the stars” in these galaxies by studying the starlight. It seemed that in a couple of cases these early big bang galaxies are nearly as massive as galaxies we see around us today, which was surprising for the team because the big bang theory predicts that galaxies start small and grow by colliding and merging with other galaxies. The real puzzle for the team was that these galaxies seem to be already quite old when the big bang universe was only about 5 per cent of its current age. This means star formation must have started very early in the history of the big bang universe, earlier than previously believed324.
[January 2005: Recently big bang astronomers presented new evidence in the case of giant galactic blobs. These blobs are huge clouds of intensely glowing material that envelop faraway galaxies (i.e. galaxies according to big bang astronomers). Using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope's infrared vision, the astronomers caught a glimpse of the galaxies tucked inside the blobs. Their observations reveal monstrously bright galaxies and suggest that blobs might surround not one, but multiple galaxies in the process of merging together. The astronomers think it is possible that extremely bright galactic mergers lie at the center of all the mysterious blobs. They don't know what fuels the blobs with gas.
[September 5 2006: Big bang astronomers have used the Subaru and Keck telescopes to discover gigantic filaments of galaxies stretching across 200 million light years in space. They think the filaments are formed 2 billion years after the big bang and that the filaments are the largest structures ever discovered in the Universe. The newly found giant structure extending over 200 million light years has a concentration of galaxies up to four times denser than the universe's average. The only previous known structures with such a high density are much smaller, measuring about 50 million light years in scale429.
[February 26 2005: Big bang astronomers have concluded that as early as a billion years after the big bang, clusters of galaxies were already forming together according to observations made with the Subaru Telescope. This is much earlier than astronomers had expected. Big bang astronomers think that it shows that galaxies didn't need to fully form before they began organizing into clusters. A team from Japan studied hundreds of galaxies approximately 12.7 billion light years away (a red shift of 5.7) and found that many were forming small clusters even as they were forming some of their first stars. In a certain area the researchers found a concentration of galaxies that could not be explained by chance. The researchers confirmed that there were six galaxies concentrated in a small volume only 3 million light years in diameter, forming a galaxy cluster. The cluster has several properties that reveal its young age, the team says. It is one hundred times less massive than present day galaxy clusters and has significantly fewer members. The fact that a cluster is already forming so soon after the big bang puts strong constraints on the fundamental structure of the big bang universe, the team says. The prevailing theory of big bang cosmology postulates that smaller mass structures form first and then grow into more massive structures, but the new results seem to contradict that. The results were published in the February 10, 2005, edition of the Astrophysical Journal (ApJ 620, L1-L4)282, 303.
[March 16 2005: Big bang astronomers claim to have discovered the most distant, very massive structure in the Universe known so far. It is a remote cluster of galaxies that is thought to weigh as much as several thousand galaxies like our own Milky Way and is thought to be located 9 billion (z=1.4) big bang light-years away, 500 million light years farther out than the previous record holding massive cluster. The discovery of such a complex and mature structure so early in the history of the (big bang) Universe was highly surprising for the big bang astronomers. Until recently it would even have been deemed impossible for them285, 292.
[March 28 2005: Already in the beginning of 2004 big bang astronomers had found an enormous string of galaxies at z=2.38 (at a distance of 10,8 billion big bang light-years). The string of galaxies was thought to be about 300 million light-years long (longer in an infinite universe with tired light red shift, 5-3) and was thought comparable in size to the “Great Wall” of galaxies found in the nearby universe by Dr. John Huchra and Dr. Margaret Geller in 1989. The massive structure defied the big bang models of 2004. According to big bang astronomers there had not been enough time since the big bang to form structures as colossal as the new discovered string302. End March 28 2005]
[August 2004: Recently big bang astronomers claimed to have made a major breakthrough in pinpointing some galaxies extremely far away using the Spitzer Space Telescope to resolve the galaxies initially detected by the James Clerk Maxwell telescope224. Back in 1995, the UK's SCUBA camera (Sub-millimetre Common User Bolometer Array) on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii, which detects light with wavelengths just under a millimetre, began finding fuzzy traces of very distant galaxies. Some of these are either too distant or too dusty to be seen even by the Hubble Space Telescope. UK and US astronomers teamed up to combine Spitzer's sharp images with SCUBA's ability to find such far away galaxies. They found that the fuzzy light traces resolved into multiple individual galaxies.
Current big bang theories of the formation of galaxies are based on the hierarchical merging of smaller entities into larger and larger structures, starting from about the size of a stellar globular cluster and ending with clusters of galaxies. According to this scenario, it is assumed that no massive galaxies existed in the young big bang universe. However, using the multi-mode FORS2 instrument on the Very Large Telescope at Paranal, a team of Italian astronomers have identified four remote galaxies, several times more massive than the Milky Way galaxy, or as massive as the heaviest galaxies in the present-day universe. Those galaxies have redshifts between 1.6 and 1.9. The existence of such systems so far away is a problem for the current big bang theory225.
[June 2004: In January 2004 a team of big bang astronomers announced that they had found embryonic galaxies a mere 1.5 billion years after the birth of their big bang cosmos (or at a distance of 12.2 billion big bang light years). Their “baby galaxies” reside in a still-developing cluster, which they called “the most distant proto-cluster ever found”: TN J1338-1942. They also had found mature galaxies at a (big bang) looking back time of nearly 9 billion years. The discovery of “the most distant proto-cluster ever found” baffled big bang astronomers, because until recently they didn't think that clusters existed when the universe was only about 5 billion years old155.
[July 2004: A Cambridge team may have found the same cosmic puzzle (for big bang astronomers): on the basis of a sample of galaxies (which rather may be clusters of galaxies) in the “early” (big bang) universe, they have calculated how many galaxies there are involved in the rapid formation of stars in the very distant universe (redshift 6). They have compared the answer with previous work looking at nearer galaxies, with redshifts around 4. It seems that there are fewer of these galaxies early in the history of the (big bang) Universe, compared to more recent times212.
[September 23 2005: Recently big bang astronomers announced different findings. In a total sample of about 8,000 galaxies selected only on the basis of their observed brightness in red light, almost 1,000 bright and vigorously star forming galaxies were discovered that were formed between 9 and 12 billion big bang years ago. To the researchers surprise this was two to six times higher than had been found previously. While observations and big bang models have consistently indicated that the big bang universe had not yet formed many stars in the first billion years of cosmic (big bang) time, the discovery announced today by big bang scientists calls for a significant change in this picture they say367.
[June 2004: Recently big bang astronomers claimed to have discovered the most distant galaxy known to date, Abell 1835 IR1916, the first galaxy known to have a redshift as large as 10. The galaxy appears to be ten thousand times less massive than the Milky Way. They think that the galaxy is at a distance of 13.230 billion (big bang) light years away and therefore seen at a time when their (big bang) universe was merely 470 million years young178.
[October 2004: Right now big bang astronomers think that we live in a reionized universe. During early time cold hydrogen atoms drifting in space were pumped up with so much energy from the ultraviolet starlight that they were stripped of their electrons. The universe once again became transparent to light. This early period is called reionization because the primeval universe was initially ionized as a soup of hydrogen nuclei and free-moving electrons. As the universe cooled through the expansion of space, these electrons were captured by hydrogen nuclei to make neutral hydrogen. But the electrons were lost again when the first fiercely bright stars fired up.
[July 2004: Recently big bang astronomers did the most comprehensive survey ever done covering the bulk of the galaxies that represent conditions in the early big bang universe. They expected to find basically zero massive galaxies beyond about 9 billion (big bang) years ago, because their theoretical models predict that massive galaxies form last. Instead, they found highly developed galaxies that just shouldn't have been there according to their theories, but are222.
[April 12 2006: Galaxies in distant clusters appear to be very different from those in the clusters that we see in the local Universe. The most distant galaxy clusters have a huge variation in the abundances of elements such as oxygen and magnesium, whereas the chemistry of galaxies in the sample of closer clusters appears to be much more homogeneous, that is, according to big bang astronomers414.
[November 7 2005: The latest images released from the Hubble Space Telescope pinpoint an enormous galaxy located almost 13 billion light-years away - at a time when the Universe was only 800 million years old. This galaxy in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, named HUDF-JD2, contains 8 times the mass of stars as the Milky Way, and really shouldn't exist according to current big bang theories377. End November 7 2005]
[March 24 2005: Big bang astronomers used to think the early big bang universe was a pretty simple place containing relatively small, blue/white-star-forming galaxies. At distances of 10 to 12 billion (big bang) light-years astronomers now are seeing blue/white galaxies with lots of dust, blue/white galaxies with no dust, but also red (and big) galaxies with lots of dust and red (and big) galaxies with no dust. Much to their surprise. There is as much variety in the early universe as we see around us today, they say297.
[March 16 2006: Researchers looked at Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) and checked the relative amount of power coming out in X-rays compared to other wavelengths and found that this ratio does not change over 13 billion (big bang) years. They looked at the X-ray spectra of AGNs and found that these also did not change through time. Both findings were much to their surprise404. However, the findings are not a surprise if you look at the Universe as infinite so AGNs are the same everywhere. End March 16 2006]
[December 2004: For years, astronomers have noted a direct relationship between the mass of a galaxy's central, supermassive “black hole” and the total mass of the bulge of stars at its core. The more massive the “black hole”, the more massive the bulge. Recently big bang astronomers used the Very Large Array radio telescope to study the most distant known quasar and its host galaxy. The observations seem to indicate that the galaxy has a supermassive black hole but no massive bulge of stars. The team thinks that the quasar dubbed J1148+5251, is at a distance of 12.8 billion light-years263.
[September 3 2007: Big bang scientists have observed that more distant galaxy clusters (at 5.8 billion big bang light years) contain 20 times more AGNs than nearby galaxy clusters (at 2.5 billion big bang light years). They also observed that AGNs outside clusters are also more common when the Universe is younger, but only by factors of two or three over the same age span461.
[June 2004: Big bang astronomers have discovered a key signpost of rapid star formation in the Cloverleaf galaxy 11 billion (big bang) light-years from Earth, using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope. The scientists found a huge quantity of dense interstellar HCN gas at the greatest distance yet detected. They think that the rate of star formation is more than 300 times greater than that in our own Milky Way and similar spiral galaxies. Where there is HCN there is gas with the high density required to form stars. In galaxies like the Milky Way, dense gas traced by HCN but composed mainly of hydrogen molecules is always associated with regions of active star formation. What is different about the Cloverleaf is the huge quantity of dense gas along with very powerful infrared radiation from the star formation158.
[June 2004: A recent quasar study done at Gemini Observatory shows that quasars appear “to blaze forth from humdrum galaxies in the early universe”, and surprisingly, not from “the giant or disrupted ones” big bang astronomers expected121. The big bang astronomers expected that the quasar's host galaxy would be large and massive, and might show signs of having collided with another galaxy -- violence that could “spark a quasar into brilliance”. Instead, the team found that all but one of the galaxies were too faint or small to detect, even though Gemini's sensitivity and resolution were exceptionally high. The one convincing detection was “remarkably unremarkable, similar in brightness and size to the Milky Way galaxy”121.
Big bang astronomers speak about the mystery of what happens to spiral galaxies, because views of the “early universe” show that spiral galaxies were once much more abundant in rich clusters of galaxies. According to big bang cosmology they seem to have been vanishing over cosmic time and therefore big bang astronomers wonder where these “missing bodies” have gone154.
[May 3 2005: Perhaps that a similar explanation can be used to solve another problem. Members of the European Virtual Observatory team have used the Chandra X-ray data and Hubble images to find 47 AGNs in the Hubble Deep Field North. These AGNs appeared to be seen sideways on. To the astronomers surprise only 4 of these looked like AGNs in the radio observations. The Hubble Space Telescope often reveals two or more distorted galaxies associated with these sources, suggesting that galaxy interactions were commoner when the big bang universe was young322.
An international team of astronomers has determined the colour of the (big bang) universe when it was very young. While the universe is now kind of beige, it was much bluer in the distant past, at a time when the big bang universe was only 2,5 billion years old182.
[October 16 2006: Every year only a handful of new stars are born out of the gas that fills the space between the stars in galaxies like the Milky Way. To account for the large number of stars in the Universe today, about 400 billion in the Milky Way alone, it was thought that the stellar birth rate must have been much higher in the past. Surprisingly, in a recent study astronomers using the 8.1m Gemini telescope in Chile report that many of the largest galaxies in the Universe had a very low stellar birth rate even when the (big bang) Universe was only about 20 percent of its present age. This is a problem for big bang astronomers435. End October 16 2006]
[July 2004: UK astronomers using the 15-m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii have discovered enormous quantities of cosmic dust in the most distant quasar yet observed (April 2003). The quasar, called SDSS J1148+5251 is at a redshift (z) of 6.43. It was very surprising for the big bang astronomers to find large quantities of dust in the very “early universe”208.
[January 2005: NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has obtained definitive evidence that light of the distant quasar SDSSp J1306 (or J1306) has taken 12.7 billion (big bang) light years to reach Earth, only a billion years less than the estimated 13.7-billion-year age of the (big bang) universe. Big bang astronomers were surprised that in this quasar the X-ray spectrum is indistinguishable from that of nearby quasars. Previously another team of scientists using the XMM-Newton X-ray satellite observed the quasar SDSSp J1030 at a distance of 12.8 billion (big bang) light years and found essentially the same result for the X-ray spectrum. Big bang astronomers claim that Chandra's precise location and spectrum for SDSSp J1306 with nearly the same properties eliminate any lingering uncertainty that precocious supermassive “black holes” exist (precocious in the big bang universe). The existence of such massive “black holes” at this early epoch of the (big bang) universe challenges (big bang) theories of the formation of galaxies and supermassive “black holes”. Optical observations suggest that the mass of SDSSp J1306's “black hole” is about a billion solar masses266.
[January 19 2006: A team of big bang astronomers have found a colossal black hole so ancient, they're not sure how it had enough time to grow to its current size, about 10 billion times the mass of the Sun. Sitting at the heart of a distant galaxy, the black hole appears to be about 12.7 billion years old, which means it formed just one billion years after the universe began and is one of the oldest supermassive black holes ever known381. There are more black holes causing problems for big bang astronomers382. End January 19 2006]
Part 1 The expansion redshift paradigm
Part 2 The relativity paradigm
Part 3 The quantum mechanics and Newtonian gravity paradigms
Part 4 The big bang paradigm
Part 5 The black hole paradigm
Part 6 The neutron star and degenerate gas paradigms
Part 7 The star formation and solar system formation paradigms