THE INFINITE UNIVERSE (Part 6, Chapter 6-1)
© Eit Gaastra
CONTENTS of this website (bottom of this webpage)
PART 6 THE NEUTRON STAR AND DEGENERATE GAS PARADIGMS
Part 6 (chapters 6-1 and 6-2) presents a new pulsar model and a new white dwarf model.
[May 2003: My ideas about pulsars have changed so strongly since January 2002 that adding May 2003 additions is an impossible job in this chapter. End May 2003]
CHAPTER 6-1: PULSARS
There are some double stars with one star “lacking”. The blue supergiant HDE 226868 is a big visible star about which Cygnus X-1, a strong X-ray source, orbits. Cygnus X-1 has a mass of more than 5 solar masses and is seen as a strong candidate for a (stellar) black hole (by big bang astronomers). As mentioned in 5-1: black holes may be a theoretical concept that does not exist with gravity as a pushing force.
In 5-2 it is reasoned that elements higher than iron may process into higher elements by very strong gravitational contraction and by doing so they may absorb heat and low energy radiation (because the maximum binding energy per nucleon occurs at iron, see Fig. 6-1-I, picture taken from the book by Harrison6).
The binding energy curve of atomic nuclei. The maximum binding energy per nucleon occurs at iron.
Perhaps Cygnus X-1 is just a huge compact dark matter object that builds up heat and pressure by gravitational contraction, gives quickly a higher-than-iron-endothermic-reaction that takes energy, thus cools of quickly, builds up heat and pressure again, etc. This may be the reason why Cygnus X-1 flickers rapidly, in less than 0.001 s. Thus Cygnus X-1 may have a pulsar quality.
When new physics rule out black holes they may, of course, rule out neutron stars as well. If the neutron star light house model does not fit in anymore, then what can be a new pulsar model?
One may think of a huge compact dark matter object, big enough to trigger certain reactions, by gravitational contraction, in the nucleus of the compact dark matter/heavy element object.
[August 2004: Mass and radius of pulsars are two hard-sought properties of pulsars242. Thus pulsars can be much bigger than expected right now by big bang astronomers. End August 2004]
Pulsars have a iron/nickel crust60. As mentioned above with Cygnus X-1: elements may process into higher elements than iron by nuclear fusion under very strong gravitational contraction.
Somewhere in the nucleus or around the nucleus may be an area that can become active under certain heat/pressure. Thus the following may happen: when an object contracts under gravitational contraction then at a certain point, when heat and pressure are high enough, a certain endothermic (higher elements than iron processing into even higher elements) reaction may occur, thus cooling the dark matter object. This cooling makes the endothermic reaction end, after which gravitational pressure and heat builds up again until the same reaction is triggered again, etc.
Such endothermic reactions may absorb (low energy) photons (there are very many CBR photons), like the exothermic reactions of fusing elements lighter than iron emit photons. Low energy protons can penetrate deeply into matter.
When this process of heating up and cooling down can go very quickly and very exactly (where frequency/time is concerned) then perhaps this way the features of pulsars can be explained: pulses by heating up and cooling down, the pulses send out at the peak of the heat, the pulses thus being caused by black body thermal radiation of the heated up pulsar.
Such a black body radiation model (at least for higher frequency wavelengths) of pulsars would explain why the pulse-peaks of pulsars are sharp at high temperature radiation and less sharp with radiation that has a lower temperature: higher temperatures have shorter time periods because of fast(er) cooling down.
[May 2004: Astronomers have made the first direct measurement of a pulsar's magnetic field. Direct measurement showed that the magnetic field of the pulsar 1E1207.4-5209 is 30 times weaker than predictions based on the indirect methods based on theoretical (big bang) assumptions about pulsars. Astronomers can measure the rate at which the time period between two succeeding pulses grows. They have always assumed that friction between its magnetic field and its surroundings was the cause. In this case, their only conclusion is that something else is pulling on the (big bang) neutron star106.
Radio wave pulses caused by synchrotron radiation may explain why pulses at radio wavelengths show peaks at a little different moment in the pulse intervals and why those radio peaks are so much “spread evenly” (i.e. “hills” rather than peaks) compared to the high energy pulses: electrons producing synchrotron radiation make different pulses than dark matter producing radiation peaks by thermal black body radiation.
When the reaction-region is not exactly in the very core of a pulsar nor that the region is found in a certain shell (with everywhere exactly the same distance to the center) around the core and if a pulsar has a certain rotation then the pulses won't come after exactly the same time-intervals when one observes the pulses over 10 repeating pulses, but the time-interval between pulses becomes very accurate when one looks at them over millions of pulses, because then the effect by rotation is flattened out. For the same reasons the pulsar peaks may be irregular in shape.
A certain area within the nucleus with elements being processed into higher elements will slowly get exhausted and thus the endothermic-reaction-region slowly displaces itself away from the nucleus of the dark matter object (= pulsar) to a more outer region in the object. This would mean that the gravitational contraction becomes a little less strong and thus it will take more time to build up the heat and pressure before a new reaction starts. Thus it may be that the pulse periods become a little larger, i.e. it may explain the spindown rates of pulsars.
[September 10 2005: Pulsars in binary star systems can speed up with the help from a companion star. For the first time ever, this speeding-up has been observed. There is direct evidence for the pulsar IGR J00291+5934 pulsing faster whilst cannibalizing its companion, something which no one had ever seen before for such a system. A pulsar can remove gas from its companion star in a process called “accretion”. The flow of gas onto the pulsar makes the pulsar pulse faster and faster364. With more material on the pulsar stronger gravitational forces make the pulsar pulse faster. End September 10 2005]
In high energy pulsars with a high speed of “burning” the endothermic-reaction-region displaces itself faster away from the nucleus of the pulsar and thus the spindown rate of high energy pulsars may be faster. Millisecond pulsars with a lower speed of “burning” then will have a lower spindown rate.
Also: it is often observed that pulse periods become a little longer until at a certain moment the pulse period shortens (a so-called “glitch” event), after which it starts to become longer again (the reason for the glitches is unknown so far). This may be explained by: the old reaction-region becomes so exhausted that another deeper region with slightly different chemical composition (lower concentration of the “fuel”; thus higher pressure/temperature is needed) triggers off with a shorter pulse period, after which the region where the reactions take place slowly move outward again, thus explaining that pulse periods become larger again.
Perhaps that over very (explaining the fact that it is not observed (yet)) long times pulse periods may become shorter: if new elements (i.e. heavier elements) start to “burn” this will need stronger pressure and higher temperatures. But also: the pulsar has gotten more higher elements because of the former fusion into such higher elements and thus may stronger pressure and temperature cause the pulsar to build up pressure and temperature faster, thus going to shorter periods (with also faster cooling down: higher temperature and pressure trigger faster reactions of the new (higher) element(s), see also Fig. 6-1-I). Thus the pulses may become less hot, i.e. the pulsar will send out pulses with colder (blackbody) radiation. This may mean that normal pulsars may evolve into millisecond pulsars (6-1).
Pulsars changing their period to a shorter pulse period is not observed so far, perhaps because a pulse period jumping to a substantial shorter period may be a slim chance: a certain element may “burn” for a very long time. A change of the pulsar to another element may trigger a strong reaction (perhaps a (super)nova) because of strong heating by gravitational contraction before a higher element is fused in an endothermic process, thus cooling down the pulsar.
[February 2004: Instead of heat by gravitational contraction there may be an exothermic reaction with elements lighter than iron fusing. Perhaps such a process is more likely to produce a (super)nova (of course this way (= supernova) a star may turn into a pulsar, as thought right now by conventional astronomy). End February 2004]
[June 2004: Perhaps that in some stars a pulsar mechanism can be at work, thus holding the star at a certain temperature (5-1). Perhaps that the mysterious outburst of the star V838 Mon in January 2002 can be explained by a pulsar mechanism within the star changing to new “fuel”133. End June 2004]
[July 25 2005: SGR 1806-20, a neutron star, exploded and sent X-rays flooding through the galaxy on December 27, 2004 - producing a flash brighter than anything ever detected beyond the solar system342. Perhaps that the gigantic explosion of the neutron star halfway across the Milky Way galaxy, the largest such explosion ever recorded in the universe, can be explained by a pulsar changing to a new “fuel” as described above. End July 25 2005]
There may also be two regions where certain endothermic reactions take place at (almost) the same time. This may explain smaller pulses next to a main pulse. The other area producing a smaller pulse may “exhaust” in another way than the region producing the main pulse and this may cause subpulse movement.
[May 3 2005: Perhaps there can also be many small regions. Or perhaps that heat from different places within the core or from different places within a layer surrounding the core, can be tunneled along certain ways to the surface. This way hot spots on (what big bang astronomers address as) neutron stars may be explained. The recently for the first time observed hot spots are very different in size, which is causing trouble for big bang astronomers, who can't explain the very different sizes of the hot spots331. End May 3 2005]
Recently a team of astronomers claims to have discovered that powerful radio bursts in pulsars can be generated by structures as small as a beach ball. The small size of these regions is inconsistent with all but one proposed theory for how the radio emission is generated61.
A few pulsars have two or more stable emission patterns, and switch, apparently at random, between the two emission “modes”62. This may be possible if there are two different reaction-regions that can “take over” from each other: at a certain moment a certain region needs that much (gravitational) pressure/heat that the other region takes over for a while, until that other region needs so much pressure/heat that the other region can take over again, etc. The region that is “taking over” is the region that triggers off a reaction first, thus cooling down the pulsar and thus the other region won't trigger off.
Magnetic fields of pulsars were expected to decay in the lighthouse pulsar model. It turned out that magnetic fields of pulsars are constant60.
When a pulsar is produced during a supernova out of a collapsing star that is part of a binary system, then the pulsar may get “thrown out” of the binary system because it has lost its outer layers: the remaining pulsar may have gotten such a high density that the binary partner looses its gravitational grip on the pulsar (with pushing gravity, 3-2). This may explain the high space velocities of pulsars. It may also explain why there are less binary pulsars than might be expected from studies of binary stars62.
Pulse transmissions may be interrupted for seconds. When resumed, varying parameters continue from where they have left off. This is called pulse nulling. Perhaps dark matter objects passing in front of the pulsar can explain pulse nulling.
Matthew Young63 found that the pulsar PSR J1244-3933 has a radio pulse period of 8.5 seconds. This is impossible according to current pulsar models. With the here described model there is no problem with a pulse period of 8.5 s (5-2).
[July 11 2006: Recently a neutron star was found to have an emission varying with a cycle that repeats itself every 6.7 hours. This is an astonishingly long period, tens of thousands of times longer than big bang scientists expected. The scientists don't have a conclusive answer to what is causing the long cycles427. [July 24 2007: New research has confirmed the 6.7 hours cycle of the (object that big bang astronomers call a) neutron star460. End July 24 2007]
[May 2004: When big bang astronomers show pulsar models they draw nice pictures of two light cones coming from a pulsar. Also so-called “artist's concepts” of pulsars show light cones99, 101. But I have never seen such a double light cone on actual pictures/observations of pulsars, which is something one would expect to see sometimes with the big bang light house model for pulsars (with two pulsar edge-on beams lightning up surrounding gas). Pulsars will be seen relatively easy when the Earth is in the path of the light cone, i.e. when we see the pulsar face-on. But pulsars can be relatively nearby and my guess is that by now we should have observed an edge-on pulsar double cone. As far as I know this has never been observed.
The here presented pulsar model may explain in a simple way the firehose-like jet discovered in action coming from the Vela pulsar102 when on takes in mind the explanation of radio loud AGNs in 5-2. The outer jet of particles of the Vela pulsar may be originated by the explosion of a concentration of an element like uranium at a certain spot inside the pulsar. End May 2004]
[July 2004: The Boomerang Nebula is one of the Universe's peculiar places. In 1995, using the 15-meter Swedish ESO Submillimeter Telescope in Chile, astronomers Sahai and Nyman revealed that it is the coldest place in the Universe found so far (February 2003). With a temperature of -272 degrees C, it is only 1 degree warmer than absolute zero. Even the -270 degrees C microwave background radiation is warmer than this nebula. It is the only object found so far that has a temperature lower than the background radiation215.
[September 3 2007: Big bang astronomers have studied a spectral line from hot iron atoms of neutron stars. They found that the iron line is broadened asymmetrically. The researchers think that the asymmetric broadening is caused because the iron atoms whirl around in a disk just beyond the neutron star's surface at 40 percent the speed of light. Asymmetric lines have been found for black holes too. This is the first confirmation that neutron stars can produce them as well. The astronomers think that it shows some similarity between neutron stars and black holes. They think that both objects accrete matter in a similar way468.
Millisecond pulsars have a low magnetic field, which is puzzling when pulsars are considered to rotate very fast, as believed with the (conventional) lighthouse model. In the here presented model slow rotation leads to fast contraction (because of low centrifugal forces). Slow rotation of millisecond pulsars then may explain the low magnetic fields of millisecond pulsars. Also: millisecond pulsars may be very old pulsars and thus they may have lost much of their rotation by inertial gravity forces (3-2, 7-1), thus explaining the low magnetic fields of millisecond pulsars too. Gamma ray pulsars are, in the here described model, likely to be young pulsars, thus (still) having faster rotation rates and thus gamma ray pulsars may have stronger magnetic fields.
This may also explain why the pulsating remnants of supernovae, like the Crab Nebula pulsar and the Vela pulsar, are not millisecond pulsars. Those pulsars descend from supernovae and so perhaps they do rotate fast and hence don't contract very fast.
But perhaps there are other ways to explain millisecond pulsars. As mentioned above: normal pulsars may evolve into millisecond pulsars (6-1).
Most of the millisecond pulsars are considered to be very old60. This then would fit into the here described way of looking at pulsars. I wonder what can happen if a (very old) pulsar gravitationally contracts, heats up, but no endothermic reaction starts because a certain element is exhausted. Perhaps this can bring a (Type Ia super)nova. But perhaps some pulsars may go to a point where a lot of (for example) uranium is produced in the core and perhaps this uranium can explode, which then may produce a (Type Ia) supernova (5-2). Type Ia supernovae coming to existence this way may explain the absence of hydrogen or helium lines in Type Ia supernovae optical spectra as well that it may explain why all Ia's have virtually the same luminosity. Type Ia supernovae occur in ellipticals as well as in spirals and are associated with stars roughly the mass of the Sun and are therefore a puzzle (for it is hard to see how a solar-mass star can detonate as violently as a supernovae). A lot of uranium may explode within a pulsar, thus explaining the relatively small amount of mass detonating so violently.
Perhaps there is also in our Sun a (slow-low) pulsar quality (or qualities), which may explain the 11-year sunspot number cycle. It may also explain why the sunspot cycle starts with sunspots at high latitudes and ends with sunspots at low latitudes: the Sun's mantle (surrounding a heavy element nucleus, 7-1) is bigger at low latitudes because of the rotation of the Sun, which may cause delay.
Sunspots are cooler (3800 K) than the surrounding photosphere (5800 K). If a slowly pulsating nucleus produces elements higher than Fe this would be a cooling process. So: our Sun may already poses pulsar qualities. I admit that an 11 year cycle is a very long pulse period, not to mention the 55 year period concerning sunspots. There is also a 5 minutes oscillation though: soundwaves are coming from the interior of the Sun with periods of 5 minutes.
Perhaps some kind of pulsar quality may (also) explain solar flares, which are virtually non-existent at sunspot minimum. Solar flares produce protons, electrons and atomic nuclei. The electrons produce radio bursts in the corona, which may make one remind of radio pulses from pulsars (6-1).
All here described features of the Sun are not understood so far, perhaps a (slow-low) pulsar quality of a heavy element nucleus (6-1) can explain some things.
[January 23 2006: The surface of the star Alpha Centauri B pulsates in and out by very tiny amounts - only a dozen metres or so every four minutes388. Perhaps a pulsar quality in the star is responsible for this. End January 23 2006]
If strong concentration of dark matter can raise pulsar qualities then cores of certain stars may have certain pulsar qualities too, which may explain the variability of certain variable star types, like ZZ Ceti Stars, RR Lyrae stars, Cepheids or Dwarf Cepheids. Perhaps such stars can be progenitors of pulsars (6-2, 7-1).
[May 28 2005: Wolf-Rayet stars have long been known to exhibit complex - seemingly chaotic - brightness variations associated with the turbulent high-speed winds they eject into space. But the nearly continuous coverage possible with the MOST (Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars) satellite has revealed a clock in the chaos - a stable variation repeating every 10 hours in the Wolf-Rayet star WR123. Finding a clock in a star like WR123 is like finding the Rosetta stone for astronomers studying massive stars, researchers say. However, although WR123 may vary like clockwork, it must be a very strange mechanism indeed. According to big bang astronomers the only theories to explain the 10-hour clock in WR123 would be: (1) the rotation of the star itself, (2) the orbit of another small star around WR123, or (3) vibrations in the structure of WR123 that are transmitted to its dense enveloping wind. All of these ideas are considered equally strange334.
It is said that in every red giant there is a white dwarf waiting to get out (perhaps not only in red giants, 6-2). Perhaps in some stars there is a pulsar waiting to get out. Though pulsars may also come to existence when multiple stars (for instance a globular or open cluster) collapse (causing a supernovae, 5-2)
[June 2004: The North Star, Polaris, is a low-amplitude classical Cepheid with a pulsation period of 3.97 days. Polaris is noteworthy among cepheids because its pulsation period and light amplitude are rapidly changing with time. From over 100 years of observations, an increase in its apparent period of dP/dt = +3.51 sec/yr and a decrease in light amplitude have been found. Its light variation has decreased from ~0.15 mag (visual) in the 1900s to a minimum value of 0.020 mag during the mid-1990s. However, recent photometry, from 2001-2004, indicates its light(V) amplitude is again increasing and is 0.038 mag during 2004.
[June 13 2005: Optical and X-ray observations of J0806 showed periodic variations of 321.5 seconds, barely more than five minutes. According to big bang astronomers the observation in J0806 is most likely the orbital period of a binary white dwarf system. However the possibility that it represents the spin of one of its white dwarfs cannot be completely ruled out. “It's either the most compact binary known or one of the most unusual systems we've ever seen. Either way it's got a great story to tell,” the big bang researchers say336.
Part 1 The expansion redshift paradigm
Part 2 The relativity paradigm
Part 3 The quantum mechanics and Newtonian gravity paradigms
Part 4 The big bang paradigm
Part 5 The black hole paradigm
Part 6 The neutron star and degenerate gas paradigms
Part 7 The star formation and solar system formation paradigms